Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance
by Noam Chomsky

 

Research Notes

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 1

 

1

Ernst Mayr, “Can SETI Succeed? Not Likely,” Bioastronomy News 7, no. 3 (1995). Online at: http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/~pine/mayr.htm.

 

2

Donald Kennedy, “The Climate Divide,” Science 299, no. 5614 (2003): p. 1813.

 

3

Howard LaFranchi, “At the UN, It’s Not Just about Iraq,” Christian Science Monitor, 30 October 2002, p. 1.

 

4

Patrick E. Tyler, “A New Power in the Streets,” New York Times, 17 February 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

5

For sources on Wilsonian idealism and seventeenth century, see my Deterring Democracy (London and New York: Verso, 1991; extended edition, New York: Hill and Wang, 1992), chapter 12, and my Profit over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order (New York: Seven Stories Press, 1999), chapter 2. For a more extensive discussion and contemporary scholarly sources, see my “Consent without Consent: Reflections on the Theory and Practice of Democracy,” Cleveland State Law Review 44, no. 4 (1996): pp. 415–37. Minor changes (punctuation, etc.) are introduced here for ease of reading.

 

6

Cited by David S. Foglesong, America’s Secret War against Bolshevism: U.S. Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1917–1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), p. 28.

 

7

Andrew J. Bacevich, American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), pp. 200ff.

 

8

Michel Crozier, Samuel P. Huntington, and Joji Watanuki, The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission (New York: New York University Press, 1975).

 

9

Randal Marlin, Propaganda and the Ethics of Persuasion (Peterborough, Ont., and Orchard Park, N.Y.: Broadview Press, 2002).

 

10

For discussion of this vast disinformation campaign, see my Culture of Terrorism (Boston: South End Press, 1988) and my Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies (Boston: South End Press, 1989), which draw particularly on the important but mostly neglected exposés by Alfonso Chardy of the Miami Herald and later official sources.

 

11

On the narrow limits of permitted discussion, see my Necessary Illusions, op. cit. For case studies over a wider range, see Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, updated ed. (New York: Pantheon Books, 2002).

 

12

Latin American Documentation, Torture in Latin America (Lima, Peru: LADOC, 1987). Julio Godoy, The Nation 250, no. 9 (5 March 1990): p. 310.

 

13

Juan Hernández Pico, Envío (Managua, Nicaragua), March 1994. Journal online at: http://www.envio.org.ni.

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 2

 

1

White House, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, 17 September 2002. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html

 

2

G. John Ikenberry, “America’s Imperial Ambition,” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 5

(September–October 2002): pp. 44ff.

 

3

On this crucial distinction, see Carl Kaysen et al., War with Iraq: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives (Cambridge: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Committee on International Security Studies, 2002). Online at: http://www.amacad.org/publications/monographs/ War_with_Iraq.pdf.

 

4

Steven R. Weisman, “Pre-emption: Idea with a Lineage Whose Time Has Come,” New York Times, Sunday, 23 March 2003, sec. B, p. 1.

 

5

Arthur Schlesinger Jr., “Good Foreign Policy a Casualty of War,” Los Angeles Times, Sunday, 23 March 2003, sec. M, p. 1.

 

6

Richard Falk, “Resisting the Global Domination Project,” interview with Zia Mian and Smitu Kothari, Frontline (India) 20, no. 8 (12 April 2003). Online at: http://www.flonnet.com/fl2008/stories/20030425004002300.htm.

 

7

Michael J. Glennon, “Why the Security Council Failed,” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 3 (May–June 2003): pp. 16ff. (online at: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20030501faessay11217/michael-j-glennon/why-the-security-council-failed.html), and “The New Interventionism: The Search for a Just International Law,” Foreign Affairs 78, no. 3 (May–June 1999): pp. 2ff.

 

8

Dana Milbank, “Bush Remarks Confirm Shift in Justification for War,” Washington Post, 1 June 2003, sec. A, p. 18. Guy Dinmore, James Harding, and Cathy Newman, “Iraqi Arms Finds Not Likely, Says US Official,” Financial Times (London), 3 May 2003, sec. 1, p. 1.

 

9

Dean Acheson, Proceedings of the American Society of International Law, nos. 13 and 14 (1963). Abraham D. Sofaer, “The United States and the World Court,” US Department of State, Current Policy, no. 769 (December 1985). Acheson was referring specifically to US economic war, but he surely knew about the international terrorism.

 

10

Bill Clinton, address to the United Nations, 27 September 1993. Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 1997), Section III: Defense Strategy. Online at: http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/qdr/sec3.html. See also William S. Cohen, Annual Report to the President and Congress (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999). Online at: http://www.defenselink.mil/execsec/adr1999/chap1.html.

 

 

11

Memorandum of the War and Peace Studies Project of the Council on Foreign Relations, with State Department participation, 19 October 1940; Laurence H. Shoup and William Minter, Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977): pp. 130ff.

 

12

See Bacevich, American Empire, op. cit., for unusually strong claims in this regard.

 

13

George W. Bush, State of the Union address, transcribed in the New York Times, 29 January 2003, sec. A, p. 12.

 

14

Condoleezza Rice, interview by Wolf Blitzer, Late Edition, CNN, 8 September 2002. Online at: http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/08/iraq.debate/.  Scott Peterson , “In War, Some Facts Less Factual,” Christian Science Monitor, 6 September 2002, World section, p. 1. The 1990 claims, based on alleged satellite images, were investigated by the St. Petersburg (Fla.) Times. Experts who analyzed photos from commercial satellites found nothing. Inquiries were rebuffed, and still are. For independent confirmation, see Peter D. Zimmerman, “The Bush Deceit,” Washington Post, 14 August 2003, sec. A, p. 19.

 

15

Christian Science Monitor–TIPP poll: Howard LaFranchi, “For Bush, Rising Bar on Iraq War,” Christian Science Monitor, 14 January 2003, USA section, p. 1. Linda Feldmann, “The Impact of Bush Linking 9/11 and Iraq,” Christian Science Monitor, 14 March 2003, USA section, p. 2. Jim Rutenberg and Robin Toner, “Critics of Iraq War Say Lack of Scrutiny Helped Administration to Press Its Case,” New York Times, 22 March 2003, sec. B, p. 10.

 

16

Edward Alden, “Americans Leave ‘Vietnam Syndrome’ Behind to Rally Behind President,” Financial Times (London), 21 March 2003, War in Iraq section, p. 2. Anatol Lieven, “A Trap of Their Own Making,” London Review of Books 25, no. 9 (8 May 2003). Online at: http://www.ceip.org/files/Publications/2003-05-08-lieven-lrb.asp?p=40&from=pubdate

 

17

Elisabeth Bumiller, “Cold Truths behind Pomp,” New York Times, 2 May 2003, sec. A, p. 1. “Transcript of President Bush’s Remarks on the End of Major Combat in Iraq,” New York Times, 2 May 2003, sec. A, p. 16.

 

18

Jason Burke, “Focus: The Return of Terror,” Observer (London), Sunday, 18 May 2003, p. 17.

 

19

News release, Program on International Policy Attitudes (College Park: University of Maryland), 4 June 2003. Online at: http://www.pipa.org/publist.html.

 

20

Jeanne Cummings and Greg Hite, “Bush Says War Ending, Looks to ’04,” Wall Street Journal, 2 May 2003, sec. A, p. 4. Francis X. Clines, “Karl Rove’s Campaign Strategy Seems Evident: It’s the Terror, Stupid,” New York Times, 10 May 2003, sec. A, p. 20; Rove’s emphasis.

 

21

David E. Sanger and Steven R. Weisman, “Bush’s Aides Envision New Influence in Region,” New York Times, 10 April 2003, sec. B, p. 11. Roger Owen, “War by Example,” Al-Ahram Weekly, 3 April 2003. Online at: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2003/632/op57.htm.

 

22

“War in Iraq: How the Die Was Cast before Transatlantic Diplomacy Failed,” Comment & Analysis, Financial Times (London), 27 May 2003, p. 15.

 

23

International Court of Justice (ICJ), Corfu Channel Case (Merits), judgment of 9 April 1949, p. 35.

 

24

See my New Military Humanism: Lessons from Kosovo (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1999).

 

25

See my New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor, and the Standards of the West (London and New York: Verso, 2000), pp. 4ff. Statement by Non-Aligned Movement, Kuala Lumpur, 25 February 2003 (BBC World Monitoring, 26 February 2003). Online at: http://www.un.int/malaysia/NAM/STiraq.html.

 

26

Aryeh Dayan, “‘One Day in Five, the IDF Attempts Assassination,’” Ha’aretz, 21 May 2003.

 

27

Amir Oren, “Who’s the Boss?,” Ha’aretz, 29 November 2002.

 

28

Suzanne Nossel, “Battle Hymn of the Democrats,” Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 27, no. 1 (winter–spring 2003): pp. 71–82. Online at: http://fletcher.tufts.edu/forum/Winter%202003/NosselFA.pdf.

 

29

Richard Wilson, “A Visit to the Bombed Nuclear Reactor at Tuwaitha, Iraq,” Nature 302, no. 5907 (31 March–6 April 1983): pp. 373–76. Michael Jansen, Middle East International 691 (10 January 2003). Imad Khadduri, Uncritical Mass, memoirs (manuscript), 2003. Scott D. Sagan and Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate (New York: W. W. Norton, 1995), pp. 18–19.

 

30

Neely Tucker, “Detainees Seek Access to Courts,” Washington Post, 3 December 2002, sec. A, p. 22. Neil A. Lewis, “Detention Upheld in Combatant Case,” New York Times, 9 January 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

31

Ed Vulliamy, “Red Cross Denied Access to PoWs,” Observer (London), Sunday, 25 May 2003, p. 20.

 

32

See p. 200 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

33

Jack M. Balkin, “A Dreadful Act II: Secret Proposals in Ashcroft’s Anti-Terror War Strike Yet Another Blow at Fundamental Rights,” Los Angeles Times, 13 February 2003, sec. B, p. 23. Nat Hentoff, “Revenge of the Patriot Act,” Progressive 67, no. 4 (April 2003): p. 11.

 

34

Winston Churchill cited by A.W. Brian Simpson, Human Rights and the End of Empire: Britain and the Genesis of the European Convention (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001): p. 55.

 

35

Kaysen et al., War with Iraq, op. cit. Michael Krepon, “Dominators Rule,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 59, no. 1 (January–February 2003): pp. 55–60.

 

36

John Steinbruner and Jeffrey Lewis, “The Unsettled Legacy of the Cold War,” Daedalus 131, no. 4 (fall 2002): pp. 5–10.

 

37

See my Year 501: The Conquest Continues (Boston: South End Press, 1993), chapter 1.

 

38

James Morgan, “Rip van Winkle’s New World Order,” Financial Times (London), 25 April 1992, p. 1, referring to G-7, the IMF, GATT, and other institutions of “the new imperial age.” Guy de Jonquières, “Power Elite at Davos Set to Vie with Protesters for Attention,” Financial Times (London), International Economy section, p. 14. Fukuyama cited by Mark Curtis, The Ambiguities of Power: British Foreign Policy since 1945 (London and Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Zed Books, 1995), p. 183.

 

39

Bush and Baker cited by Sam Husseini, “Why So Long for Iraq to Comply?,” Counterpunch, 8 March 2003. Online at: http://www.counterpunch.org/husseini03082003.html. Dilip Hiro, Iraq: In the Eye of the Storm (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press/Nation Books, 2002): pp. 102ff.

 

40

Edward C. Luck, “Making the World Safe for Hypocrisy,” New York Times, 22 March 2003, sec. A, p. 11.

 

41

Elisabeth Bumiller and Carl Hulse, “Bush Will Use Congress Vote to Press U.N.,” New York Times, 12 October 2002, sec. A, p. 1. Colin Powell cited by Julia Preston, “U.S. Said to Offer France Final Compromise to End Iraq Resolution Impasse,” New York Times, 18 October 2002, sec. A, p. 10. David E. Sanger with Julia Preston, “President Warns Hussein to Heed a Call to Disarm,” New York Times, 8 November 2002, sec. A, p. 1. Andrew Card cited in Doug Saunders, with reports from Associated Press (AP) and Reuters, “Iraq Seen As Likely to Accept Resolution,” Toronto Globe and Mail, 11 November 2002, sec. A, p. 8.

 

42

Mark Turner and Roula Khalaf, “Powell ‘Not Lobbying for Second Resolution,’” Financial Times (London), 5 February 2003, p. 9.

 

43

David E. Sanger and Warren Hoge, “Bush and 2 Allies Seem Set for War to Depose Hussein,” New York Times, 17 March 2003, sec. A, p. 1. Michael R. Gordon, “Allies Will Move In, Even if Saddam Hussein Moves Out,” New York Times, 18 March 2003, sec. A, p. 16.

 

44

“Excerpts from Bush’s News Conference on Iraq and Likelihood of War,” New York Times, 7 March 2003, sec. A, p. 12. Felicity Barringer and David E. Sanger, “U.S. Says Hussein Must Cede Power to Head Off War,” New York Times, 1 March 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

45

Alison Mitchell and David E. Sanger, “Bush to Put Case for Action in Iraq to Key Lawmakers,” New York Times, 4 September 2002, sec. A, p. 1. Fleischer cited by Christopher Adams and Mark Huband, “US Engineers Draw Another Blank over Suspected Weapons Site,” Financial Times (London), 12 April 2003, War in Iraq section, p. 5. Jack Straw cited by David E. Sanger with Felicity Barringer, “President Readies U.S. for Prospect of Imminent War,” New York Times, 7 March 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

46

“In Powell’s Words: Saddam Hussein Remains Guilty,” New York Times, 6 March 2003, sec. A, p. 17. Steven R. Weisman, “U.S. Lists 3 Chechen Groups as Terrorist and Freezes Assets,” New York Times, 1 March 2003, sec. A, p. 11.

 

47

Condoleezza Rice, “Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest,” Foreign Affairs 79, no. 1 (January–February 2000): pp. 45ff., cited by John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, “An Unnecessary War,” Foreign Policy 134 (January–February 2003): pp. 50–59. Online at: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/issue_janfeb_2003/walts.html. Note that 9-11 had no effect on these risk assessments.

 

48

Dafna Linzer, AP, “Backers of US Hope for Payoff,” Boston Globe, 24 February 2003.

 

49

Guy Dinmore and Mark Turner, “US Uses Economic Muscle to Persuade Waverers to Say Yes,” Financial Times (London), 12 February 2003, p. 6. Jeanne Cummings and Robert Block, “U.S. Bids Against France for Votes in U.N.,” Wall Street Journal, 26 February 2003, sec. A, p. 4.

 

50

Geneive Abdo, “US Offers Incentives for Backing on Iraq,” Boston Globe, 13 February 2003, sec. A, p. 1. Eric Lichtblau, “Charity Leader Accepts a Deal in a Terror Case,” New York Times, 11 February 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

51

Richard Boudreaux and John Hendren, “U.S. Drops Its Bid to Base Troops in Turkey,” Los Angeles Times, 15 March 2003, sec. 1, p. 5.

 

52

Neil King Jr. and Jess Bravin, “U.S. May Spurn U.N. Iraq Sanctions,” Wall Street Journal, 5 May 2003, sec. A, p. 3. For US attitudes quoted here, see poll by the Program on International Policy Attitudes (College Park: University of Maryland), 29 April 2003, “Americans on America’s Role in the World After the Iraq War,” a PIPA/Knowledge Networks Poll. Online at: http://www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/PostWarIraq/report_april29.pdf.

 

For Iraqi attitudes, see Susannah Sirkin, “Baghdad Bombing: What Should We Do Now?,” New York Times, 21 August 2003, sec. A, p. 24. Sirkin, deputy director of Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), cites a PHR poll finding that more than 85 percent wanted the UN to “play the lead role.” Poll findings online at: http://www.phrusa.org/research/iraq/release_091803.html.

 

A later Gallup poll found that Baghdad residents held France and its President Jacques Chirac “in higher regard” than Bush or Blair: favorability rating was Chirac 42 percent, Bush 29 percent, Blair 20 percent. See Patrick E. Tyler, “In a Poll, Baghdad Residents Call Freedom Worth the Price,” New York Times, 24 September 2003, sec. A, p. 16. The clear implication, unstated, is that although they were naturally delighted to be rid of Saddam Hussein and the murderous sanctions regime (unmentioned), they continued to oppose the invasion.

 

53

G. John Ikenberry, “America’s Imperial Ambition,” op. cit. Anatol Lieven, “The Push for War,” London Review of Books 24, no. 19 (3 October 2002). Online at: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v24/n19/liev01_.html.

 

54

Samuel P. Huntington, “The Lonely Superpower,” Foreign Affairs 78, no. 2 (March–April 1999): pp. 35ff. Robert Jervis, “Weapons Without Purpose? Nuclear Strategy in the Post-Cold War Era,” Foreign Affairs 80, no. 4 (July–August 2001): pp. 143ff. Jervis online at: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20010701fareviewessay5002/robert-jervis/weapons-without-purpose-nuclear-strategy-in-the-post-cold-war-era.html.

 

55

Kenneth Waltz in Ken Booth and Tim Dunne, eds., Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of Global Order (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002). Steven Miller in Kaysen et al., War with Iraq, op. cit. Jack Snyder, “Imperial Temptations,” National Interest, no. 71 (spring 2003): pp. 29–40. Selig S. Harrison, interview by Felicia R. Lee, “Q&A: Finding a Way Out with North Korea,” New York Times, 7 June 2003, sec. B, p. 11.

 

56

Bernard B. Fall, Last Reflections on a War (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1967).

 

57

See my For Reasons of State (New York: Pantheon Books, 1973; New Press 2003), p. 25, for a review of the final material in the Pentagon Papers, which ends at this point.

 

58

Maureen Dowd, “Bush Moves to Control War’s Endgame,” New York Times, 23 February 1991, sec. 1, p. 1.

 

59

World Economic Forum, “Declining Public Trust Foremost a Leadership Problem,” news release (World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland), 14 January 2003. Online at: http://www.weforum.org/site/homepublic.nsf/Content/Declining+Public+Trust+Foremost+a+Leadership+Problem. Guy de Jonquières, “US Leaders Score 27% in Global Trust Poll,” Financial Times (London), 15 January 2003, International Economy and the Americas section, p. 3.

 

60

Alan Cowell, “World Forum, Back at Davos, Faces Tough Economic Skiing,” New York Times, 23 January 2003, sec. A, p. 3. Mark Landler, “U.S. Role in the World Dominates Economic Talks as Brazilian Clamors to Be Heard,” New York Times, 24 January 2003, sec. A, p. 8. Marc Champion, David Cloud, and Carla Anne Robbins, “Tough Message: At Davos, Powell Pushes Back Against Resistance Over Iraq,” Wall Street Journal, 27 January 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

61

“Powell on Iraq,” op. cit.

 

62

Kaysen et al., War with Iraq, op. cit.

 

63

Hans von Sponeck, “Go On, Call Bush’s Bluff,” Guardian (London), 22 July 2002, Leader, p. 13.

 

64

Ken Warn, “Canada Fears ‘Biggest Risk to World Peace’ on Its Doorstep,” Financial Times (London), 21 January 2003, Americas section, p. 2. For international polls, see chapter 5 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

65

Glenn Kessler and Mike Allen, “The Greater Threat? Around the Globe, People See Bush—Not Hussein—as the Real Enemy,” Washington Post, National Weekly edition, March 3–9, 2003, cover story. Fareed Zakaria, “The Arrogant Empire,” Newsweek 141, no. 12 (24 March 2003): pp. 19ff., US edition, cover story. Online at: http://www.fareedzakaria.com/articles/newsweek/032403.html.

 

66

See chapter 1, note 6, op. cit. Woodrow Wilson, “Democracy and Efficiency,” Atlantic Monthly 87, no. 521 (March 1901): pp. 289–99, cited by Ido Oren, Our Enemies and US: America’s Rivalries and the Making of Political Science (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2003): p. 42. Wilson online at: http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABK2934-0087-44.

 

67

Bacevich, American Empire, op. cit., pp. 215ff. His emphasis.

 

68

John Stuart Mill. See p. 44–45 of Hegemony or Survival. Britain’s attitude toward the nobility of its successor was a bit different; see p. 149 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

69

Andrew J. Bacevich, “Culture, Globalization, and U.S. Foreign Policy,” review of Many Globalizations: Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World, edited by Peter L. Berger and Samuel P. Huntington, and Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, edited by Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington, World Policy Journal 19, no. 3 (fall 2002): pp. 77–82. Online at: http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/articles/wpj02-3/bacevich.html.

 

70

Michael J. Glennon, “Terrorism and ‘Intentional Ignorance,’” Christian Science Monitor, 20 March 1986, p. 18.

 

71

Sebastian Mallaby, “Uneasy Partners,” review of The Clash: A History Of U.S.-Japan Relations, by Walter LaFeber, and Altered States: The United States and Japan Since the Occupation, by Michael Schaller, New York Times, 21 September 1997, sec. 7 (Book Review), p. 34. Michael Mandelbaum, The Ideas That Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy, and Free Markets in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Public Affairs, 2002), p. 95. Senior administration policymaker cited by Thomas L. Friedman, “A New U.S. Problem: Freely Elected Tyrants,” New York Times, 12 January 1992, sec. 4, p. 3.

 

72

Max Boot, “A War for Oil? Not This Time,” New York Times, 13 February 2003, sec. A, p. 41. Robert Kagan, “Politicians with Guts,” Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, 10 February 2003; Washington Post, 31 January 2003, sec. A, p. 27.

 

73

On Mill’s essay and the circumstances in which it was written, see my Peering into the Abyss of the Future (New Delhi: Institute of Social Sciences, 2002). Britain’s crimes in India and China shocked many Englishmen, including classical liberals like Richard Cobden. See chapter 7, note 52, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

74

Henri Alleg et al., La Guerre d’Algérie (Paris: Temps actuels, 1981), cited in Youcef Bedjaoui, Abbas Aroua, and Meziane Ait-Larbi, eds., An Inquiry into the Algerian Massacres (Geneva, Switzerland: Hoggar, 1999).

 

75

Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central America (New York: Norton, 1983): pp. 50ff., 75ff.

 

76

Mohammad-Mahmoud Mohamedou, Iraq and the Second Gulf War: State Building and Regime Security (San Francisco: Austin & Winfield, 1998): p. 123.

 

77

David F. Schmitz, Thank God They’re on Our Side: The United States and Right-Wing Dictatorships, 1921–1965 (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1999). “Japan Envisions a ‘New Order’ in Asia, 1938,” reprinted in Dennis Merrill and Thomas G. Paterson, eds., Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Documents and Essays, vol. 2, Since 1914, 5th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000).

 

78

Soviet lawyers: see Sean D. Murphy, Humanitarian Intervention: The United Nations in an Evolving World Order (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996). Kennedy administration: see my Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnam War, and U.S. Political Culture (Boston: South End Press, 1993).

 

79

Ivan Maisky cited in Vladimir O. Pechatnov, “Pechatnov’s Interpretation of Ivan Maisky’s Report,” excerpts of Cold War International History Project Working Paper Series, no. 13, The Big Three After World War II: New Documents on Soviet Thinking about Post War Relations with the United States and Great Britain (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, May 1995). Online at: http://wwics.si.edu/topics/pubs/ACF17F.PDF .

 

80

Cited by LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions, op. cit. Robert W. Tucker, “Oil: The Issue of American Intervention,” Commentary 59, no. 1 (January 1975): pp. 21–31.

 

81

Cited by Mexican historian José Fuentes Mares in Cecil Robinson, ed. and trans., The View from Chapultepec: Mexican Writers on the Mexican-American War (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1989): p. 160.

 

82

Cited by William Stivers, Supremacy and Oil: Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918–1930 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1982).

 

83

Hans J. Morgenthau, “Reflections on the End of the Republic,” New York Review of Books 15, no. 5 (24 September 1970).

 

84

See regular Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International reports and, among many publications, Javier Giraldo, Colombia: The Genocidal Democracy (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1996), and Garry M. Leech, Killing Peace: Colombia’s Conflict and the Failure of U.S. Intervention (New York: Information Network of the Americas [INOTA], 2002).

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 3

 

1

Michael Wines, “Two Views of Inhumanity Split the World, Even in Victory,” New York Times, Sunday, 13 June 1999, sec. 4, p. 1. Václav Havel, “Kosovo and the End of the Nation-State,” New York Review of Books 46, no. 10 (10 June 1999). David Fromkin, Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals Meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields (New York: Free Press, 1999). For a sample of the rhetoric, see my New Military Humanism, op. cit.

 

2

Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1990 (Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 1993).

 

3

C. J. Chivers, “Uprooted Iraqis See War as Path to Lost Homes,” New York Times, 5 December 2002, sec. A, p. 1.

 

4

In early August, the bishop’s office in East Timor estimated 3,000 to 5,000 deaths through 1999. Historian John Taylor estimates 5,000 to 6,000 dead before the August 30 referendum, which set off the final paroxysm. See John G. Taylor, East Timor: The Price of Freedom (New York: Zed Books, 1999).

 

5

On Clinton’s sudden conversion between September 8 and 11, 1999, see Joseph Nevins, “First the Butchery, Then the Flowers: Clinton and Holbrooke in East Timor,” Counterpunch 9, no. 10 (16–31 May 2002). Online at: http://www.etan.org/et2002b/june/23-30/00first.htm.

 

6

The Australian-led UN peacekeeping force entered as the Indonesian army was withdrawing. An even earlier dispatch of forces would have been an “intervention” only in the sense that US-British forces “intervened” in France on D-Day.

 

7

Fromkin, Kosovo Crossing, op. cit.

 

8

Yaroslav Trofimov, “Uneasy Peace: U.N.’s Long Stay, Power in Kosovo Stir Resentment,” Wall Street Journal, 3 January 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

9

Roland Paris, “Kosovo and the Metaphor War,” Political Science Quarterly 177, no. 3 (fall 2002): pp. 423–51.

 

10

Michael Mandelbaum, The Ideas That Conquered the World, op. cit., p. 193.

 

11

Timothy Garton Ash, “Imagine No America,” Guardian (London), 19 September 2002, p. 21.

 

12

For Robertson quotes and discussion, see my New Generation Draws the Line, op. cit., pp. 106–07. Statesment of Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Robin Cook, House of Commons, 18 January 1999, Column 567. Online at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199899/cmhansrd/vo990118/debtext/90118-06.htm .

 

13

Nicholas J. Wheeler, Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 34, 265ff.

 

14

Wesley K. Clark, Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat (New York: Public Affairs, 2001): p. 171. Michael Ignatieff, “Chains of Command,” review of Waging Modern War, by Wesley Clark, New York Review of Books 48, no. 12 (19 July 2001).

 

15

Bacevich, American Empire, op. cit.

 

16

Isa Blumi, “The Islamist Challenge in Kosova,” Current History 102, no. 662 (March 2003): pp. 124–128.

 

17

Anne-Marie Slaughter, “Good Reasons for Going Around the U.N.,” New York Times, 18 March 2003, sec. A, p. 33.

 

18

Charles Bergquist in Bergquist, Ricardo Peñaranda, and Gonzalo Sánchez, eds., Violence in Colombia, 1990–2000: Waging War and Negotiating Peace (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources Books, 2001).

 

19

Anthony Lewis, “The Challenge of Global Justice Now,” Daedalus 132, no. 1 (winter 2003): pp. 5–9. Timorese were regarded as “citizens of Indonesia” by the US.

 

20

“Tempering Turkey,” editorial, Boston Globe, 6 March 2003, sec. A, p. 14. Aryeh Neier, “Inconvenient Facts,” Dissent 47, no. 2 (spring 2000): pp. 109–12. Neier is reacting to the review of US-backed atrocities in my New Military Humanism, which leaves no doubt as to the locus of responsibility.

 

21

Robert Cooper, “Why We Still Need Empires,” Observer (London), 7 April 2002, p. 27.

 

22

Robert Jervis, “Theories of War in an Era of Leading-Power Peace,” Presidential Address of the American Political Science Association, 2001, American Political Science Review 96, no. 1 (March 2002): pp. 1–14.

 

23

Dexter Perkins, The Monroe Doctrine, 1823–1826 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press; London: Oxford University Press, 1927). Bismarck cited by Nancy Mitchell, “Germans in the Backyard: Weltpolitik Versus Protective Imperialism,” Prologue 24, no. 2 (summer 1992): pp. 174–183.

 

24

Robert Lansing and Woodrow Wilson cited in Gabriel Kolko, Main Currents in Modern American History (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984), p. 47.

 

25

President Taft cited in Jenny Pearce, Under the Eagle: U.S. Intervention in Central America and the Caribbean (Boston: South End Press, 1982), p. 17. Wilson’s minister of the interior cited in Gordon Connell-Smith, The Inter-American System (London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), p. 16. John Foster Dulles cited in Stephen G. Rabe, Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), p. 33.

 

26

David F. Schmitz, Thank God They’re on Our Side, op. cit., and The United States and Fascist Italy, 1922–1940 (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1988). Cable from British Embassy in Washington to Foreign Office in London, Sir H. Caccia, No. 2455, 24 November 1959, reporting conversation with Dulles.

 

27

Editorial, New York Times, 6 August 1954.

 

28

David Green, The Containment of Latin America: A History of the Myths and Realities of the Good Neighbor Policy (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971).

 

29

William Y. Elliot, ed., The Political Economy of American Foreign Policy: Its Concepts, Strategy, and Limits, report by a study group sponsored by the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and the National Planning Association (New York: Holt, 1955), p. 42.

 

30

Schmitz, The United States and Fascist Italy, op. cit., p. 214.

 

31

Oren, Our Enemies and US, op. cit.

 

32

Schmitz, The United States and Fascist Italy, op. cit. Kennan cited in Christopher Simpson, The Splendid Blond Beast: Money, Law, and Genocide in the Twentieth Century (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995). Scott Newton, “The ‘Anglo-American Connection’ and the Political Economy of Appeasement,” Diplomacy and Statecraft 2, no. 3 (November 1991).

 

33

See my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., chapter 11, and sources cited there. Later material reviewed in my Year 501, op. cit., chapter 2, and World Orders, Old and New, extended edition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996).

 

34

Schmitz, Thank God They’re on Our Side, op. cit., p. 305.

 

35

Alan Tonelson, “Why Things Turned Violent,” review of Confronting the Third World: United States Foreign Policy, 1945–1980, by Gabriel Kolko, New York Times, Sunday, 25 December 1988, sec. 7 (Book Review), p. 7.

 

36

Lansing and Wilson cited in Lloyd C. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 1913–1923 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984). Alex Carey, Taking the Risk out of Democracy: Corporate Propaganda versus Freedom and Liberty (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1997).

 

37

Cited by Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1992), p. 78.

 

38

John Lewis Gaddis, The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 10.

 

39

Mark Laffey, “Discerning the Patterns of World Order: Noam Chomsky and International Theory after the Cold War,” Review of International Studies 29 (forthcoming, 2003), a critical account of the convention.

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 4

 

1

Michael Krepon, strategic analyst at the Henry L. Stimson Center, cited by Faye Bowers and Howard LaFranchi, “Risk Rises for a Reignited Arms Race,” Christian Science Monitor, 31 December 2002, p. 1. Gary Hart and Warren B. Rudman (cochairs), America—Still Unprepared, Still in Danger: Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations (New York and Washington, D.C.: Council on Foreign Relations, 2002). Online at: http://www.cfr.org/pdf/Homeland_TF.pdf.

 

2

Marion Lloyd, “Soviets Close to Using A-Bomb in 1962 Crisis, Forum Is Told,” Boston Globe, 13 October 2002, sec. A, p. 20. Kevin Sullivan, “40 Years After Missile Crisis, Players Swap Stories in Cuba,” Washington Post, 13 October 2002, sec. A, p. 28.

 

3

Eisenhower quoted in Matthew Evangelista, Cold War International History Project Working Paper Series, no. 10 “Why Keep Such an Army?”: Khrushchev’s Troop Reductions (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, December 1997). Online at: http://wwics.si.edu/topics/pubs/ACFB43.pdf.

 

4

Lloyd, “Soviets Close to Using A-Bomb in 1962 Crisis,” op. cit.

 

5

Raymond L. Garthoff, Reflections on the Cuban Missile Crisis (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1987), pp. 83, 89, 86, 37. Emphasis his. Warheads of course remained under US control.

 

6

The leading US government scholar recognized that the only “mass-based political party in South Vietnam was the National Liberation Front and that the US must resort to violence to destroy it.” Douglas Eugene Pike, Viet Cong: The Organization and Techniques of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1966). In Indonesia, the main target of the huge US-backed slaughter in 1965 was the PKI, which developed a “mass base among the peasantry” through its “vigor in defending the interests of the . . . poor.” Harold Crouch, Army and Politics in Indonesia (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978), pp. 351, 155.

 

7

William Safire, “Irrefutable and Undeniable,” New York Times, 6 February 2003, sec. A, p. 39. Adam Clymer, “A Reprise of 1962, with Less Electricity,” New York Times, 6 February 2003, sec. A, p. 17.

 

8

Adlai E. Stevenson III, “Different Man, Different Moment,” New York Times, 7 February 2003, sec. A, p. 25.

 

9

Thomas Paterson, “Cuba and the Missile Crisis” in Paterson and Merrill, eds., Major Problems, op. cit.

 

10

Ernest R. May and Philip D. Zelikow, eds., The Kennedy Tapes: Inside the White House during the Cuban Missile Crisis (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997), p. 263.

 

11

Frank Costigliola, “Kennedy, the European Allies, and the Failure to Consult,” Political Science Quarterly 110, no. 1 (spring 1995): pp. 105–23. Costigliola in Thomas G. Paterson, ed., Kennedy’s Quest for Victory: American Foreign Policy, 1961–1963 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989). The senior adviser, not clearly identified, may be Dean Acheson or Mike Mansfield.

 

12

Paterson, “Cuba and the Missile Crisis,” op. cit.

 

13

Morris H. Morley, Imperial State and Revolution: The United States and Cuba, 1952–1986 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987). See Daniele Ganser, Reckless Gamble: The Sabotage of the United Nations in the Cuban Conflict and the Missile Crisis of 1962 (New Orleans: University Press of the South, 2000), and Stephen M. Streeter, Managing the Counterrevolution: The United States and Guatemala, 1954–1961 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 2000).

 

14

“A Program of Covert Action against the Castro Regime,” 16 March 1960, declassified 9 April 1998. Text published in Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, SHAFR Newsletter 33, no. 3 (September 2002). Online at: http://shafr.history.ohio-state.edu/Newsletter/2002/SEP/covert.htm.

 

15

British Cable No. 2455, from Washington to British Foreign Office, 24 November 1959. Online at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/19591124.pdf. See chapter 3, note 26, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

16

Arthur Schlesinger, Memorandum for the President, 11 February 1961, cited in Foreign Relations of the United States 1961-1963, vol. X, document 31M. Online at: http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/frusX/31_45.html.

 

17

Thomas Paterson in Paterson, ed., Kennedy’s Quest, op. cit. For the full texts, see Mark J. White, ed., The Kennedys and Cuba: The Declassified Documentary History, rev. ed. (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2001), pp. 37ff.

 

18

May and Zelikow, eds., The Kennedy Tapes, op. cit., p. 134; 18 October 1962, during an internal discussion on the use of force during the missile crisis.

 

19

May and Zelikow, eds., The Kennedy Tapes, op. cit., p. ix. On the US takeover under the guise of liberation, see Louis A. Pérez, Jr., The War of 1898: The United States and Cuba in History and Historiography (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).

 

20

Piero Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959–1976 (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), p. 16. The quoted phrase is Arthur Schlesinger’s, referring to the goals of Robert Kennedy, in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Robert Kennedy and His Times (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978), pp. 477–80.

 

21

Jorge I. Domínguez, “The @#$%& Missile Crisis: (Or, What Was ‘Cuban’ About U.S. Decisions during the Cuban Missile Crisis?),” Diplomatic History 24, no. 2 (spring 2000): pp. 305–15. Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions, pp. 402–03. Online at: http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~jidoming/images/jid_missile.PDF.

 

22

White, ed., The Kennedys and Cuba, op. cit., pp. 71, 95ff., 106, 115ff.

 

23

Tim Weiner, “The Cuban Missile Crisis: When the World Stood on Edge And Nobody Died Beautifully,” New York Times, Sunday, 13 October 2002, sec. 4, p. 7, citing a February 1962 memorandum; also cited by AP, “US Data Show a Plan to Lure Cuba to War,” Boston Globe, 30 January 1998.

 

24

L. L. Lemnitzer, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, “Justification for the US Military Intervention in Cuba (TS),” Operation Northwoods, 13 March 1962. Online at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/northwoods.pdf.

 

25

Paterson in Kennedy’s Quest, op. cit.

 

26

Garthoff, Reflections, op. cit., pp. 16ff.

 

27

Garthoff, Reflections, op. cit., pp. 78–79, 108–09.

 

28

Memorandum of 12 November 1962 cited by Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions, op. cit., p. 25. Garthoff, Reflections, op. cit., pp. 91, 98.

 

29

Domínguez, Diplomatic History, op. cit. May and Zelikow, eds., The Kennedy Tapes, op. cit., p. 66.

 

30

“Thirty Years of Fidel Castro,” editorial, New York Times, 2 January 1989, sec. 1, p. 22.

 

 

31

Reuters, Boston Globe, 15 October 1992. Juan O. Tamayo, “Cuban Hotels Were Bombed by Miami-Paid Salvadorans,” Miami Herald, 16 November 1997, sec. A, p. 1; Tamayo, “’94 Bombings against Honduran Leader May Be Linked to Anti-Castro Plot,” Miami Herald, 28 September 1997, sec. A, p. 1. Andrew Cawthorne, “US Foundation [CANF] Is Implicated in 1997 Bombings in Cuba,” Boston Globe, 12 March 1999. Ann Louise Bardach and Larry Rohter, “Taking Aim at Castro, Key Cuba Foe Claims Exiles’ Backing, New York Times, 12 July 1998, sec. 1, p. 1. Bardach and Rohter, “Decades of Intrigue: Life in the Shadows, Trying to Bring Down Castro,” New York Times, 13 July 1998, sec. A, p. 1. Anya Landau and Wayne Smith, “Cuba on the Terrorist List: In Defense of the Nation or Domestic Political Calculation?,” International Policy Report (Center for International Policy), November 2002.

 

32

Duncan Campbell, “Convicted Cuban ‘Spies’ to Tell US Appeal Court They Were Framed,” Guardian (London), 7 April 2003, p. 15. For an analysis of the charges and background, see William Blum, “Which Cuban Terrorists? Theirs or Ours?,” Counterpunch, 1 September 2002.

 

33

Ruth Leacock, Requiem for Revolution: The United States and Brazil, 1961–1969 (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1990), p. 33.

 

34

May and Zelikow, eds., The Kennedy Tapes, op. cit., p. 91.

 

35

Morris Morley and Chris McGillion, Unfinished Business (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 223n.

 

36

Morley and Chris McGillion, Unfinished Business, op. cit., p. 153. See my Necessary Illusions, op. cit., pp. 177, 101. Shirley Christian, “U.S. Sends Aid to Nicaragua as Death Toll Rises,” New York Times, 4 September 1992, sec. A, p. 6.

 

37

David E. Sanger, “U.S. Won’t Offer Trade Testimony on Cuba Embargo,” New York Times, 21 February 1997, sec. A, p. 1.

 

38

Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions, op. cit., p. 26.

 

39

Paterson, “Cuba and the Missile Crisis” in Merrill and Paterson, eds., Major Problems, op. cit.

 

40

Letter to Robert Livingston, 18 April 1802, cited in “The Louisiana Purchase, 1803–2003,” National Interest, no. 71 (spring 2003): p. 16.

 

41

Robert F. Kennedy cited in Michael McClintock, Instruments of Statecraft: U.S. Guerrilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency, and Counterterrorism, 1940–1990 (New York: Pantheon, 1992), p. 23. Online at: http://www.statecraft.org/.

 

42

Cited in Adam Isacson and Joy Olson, Just the Facts (Washington, D.C.: Latin America Working Group and Center for International Policy, 1999), p. ix. Related material online at: http://www.ciponline.org/facts/.

 

43

See my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., chapter 10.

 

44

Lars Schoultz, Human Rights and United States Policy toward Latin America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981), p. 7.

 

45

For discussion, context, and sources, see my Year 501, op. cit., chapter 7.

 

46

Thomas Skidmore, The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964–85 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988). Also see my Year 501, op. cit., chapter 7.

 

47

Report from Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker to President Johnson, “Indonesia-American Relations,” Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), 1964–1968, vol. 26, p. 257. Special National Intelligence Estimate (SNIE), 1 September 1965, FRUS, vol. 26, p. 292. Cited by Mark Curtis, Web of Deceit: Britain’s Real Role in the World (New York: Vintage, 2003), pp. 399ff.

 

48

Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions, op. cit., pp. 332, 346.

 

49

Victoria Brittain, review of Conflicting Missions, by Piero Gleijeses, “Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959–76,” Race and Class 44, no. 4 (April–June 2003): pp. 83–90.

 

50

Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions, op. cit., p. 359.

 

51

David Gonzalez, “At Cuba Conference, Old Foes Exchange Notes on 1962 Missile Crisis,” New York Times, 14 October 2002, sec. A, p. 6. Barry Gewen, “Thinking the Unthinkable,” review of Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat, Responding to the Challenge, by Alan M. Dershowitz, New York Times, Sunday, 15 September 2002, sec. 7 (Book Review), p. 12.

 

52

Alexander George, ed., Western State Terrorism (New York: Routledge, 1991; London: Polity, 1991). See also Chomsky and Edward S. Herman, The Political Economy of Human Rights, vol. 1 (Boston: South End Press, 1979), chapter 3, sec. 1, and Edward S. Herman, The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda (Boston: South End Press, 1982).

 

53

Jean Bethke Elshtain, Just War against Terror (New York: Basic Books, 2003), p. 18; her emphasis. For a review of these operations, based in part on notes provided to us by Newsweek Saigon bureau chief Kevin Buckley, see Chomsky and Herman, Political Economy of Human Rights, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 313ff., and Manufacturing Consent, op. cit., pp. 196ff. Some of the same material appears in Christopher Hitchens, The Trial of Henry Kissinger (London and New York: Verso, 2001), pp. 30ff.

 

54

Congressional testimony, 1986, 1983. See essays by Jack Spence and Eldon Kenworthy in Thomas W. Walker, ed., Reagan Versus the Sandinistas: The Undeclared War on Nicaragua (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987).

 

55

Remarks at a White House meeting for Supporters of United States Assistance for the Nicaraguan Democratic Resistance, 3 March 1986. Walter Robinson, “Reagan Says Nicaraguans Threaten US,” Boston Globe, 22 March 1986.

 

56

Eldon Kenworthy cited in Walker, Reagan Versus the Sandinistas, op. cit. See also my Culture of Terrorism, op. cit., pp. 219ff.; Necessary Illusions, op. cit., pp. 71ff.; and Deterring Democracy, op. cit., p. 259, on various phases as the useful farce proceeded. National emergency: see “Texts of Reagan Executive Order and Message to Congress,” New York Times, 2 May 1985, sec. A, p. 8, and my Turning the Tide: U.S. Intervention in Central America and the Struggle for Peace (Boston: South End Press, 1986), p. 144, for more detail. Libya: see my Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World, updated version of 1986 first edition published by Black Rose Books (Cambridge: South End Press, 2002), p. 72, on Reagan’s July 1985 address to the American Bar Association. Online at: http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/resource/speeches/1985/70885a.htm.

 

57

George Shultz, “Moral Principles and Strategic Interests,” Department of State, Current Policy, no. 820 (transcript of speech of 14 April 1986). Libya: see my Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, op. cit., chapter 3.

 

58

Thomas W. Walker, Nicaaagua: Living in the Shadow of the Eagle, 4th ed. (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press; and Boulder, Colo., Westview Press, 2003). Thomas Carothers in Abraham F. Lowenthal, ed., Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America, Case Studies (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991). Carothers, In the Name of Democracy: US Policy toward Latin America in the Reagan Years (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991); his emphasis.

 

59

For World Bank, IADB, and other sources, see my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., chapter 10. For information on health effects, see Nicaraguan Society of Doctors for Peace and the Defense of Life (MEDIPAZ), The War in Nicaragua: The Effects of Low-Intensity Conflict on an Underdeveloped Country (Managua, Nicaragua, and Cambridge, Mass.: MEDIPAZ, 2003).

 

60

See Paul S. Reichler, “Tribute to Professor Abram Chayes: Holding America to Its Own Best Standards: Abe Chayes and Nicaragua in the World Court,” Harvard International Law Journal 42, no. 1 (winter 2001).

 

61

“Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua,” (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 14, International Court of Justice, 27 June 1986. Online at: http://www.gwu.edu/~jaysmith/nicus3.html. Security Council S/18221, 11 July 1986.

 

62

For these and many other samples from the press, see Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent, op. cit., pp. 240ff., and my Necessary Illusions, op. cit., pp. 33ff., and Year 501, op. cit., pp. 251ff.

 

63

Charles A. Radin, “US Crafts Vietnam Education Proposal,” Boston Globe, 17 November 2000, sec. A, p. 21.

 

64

Anthropologist Ira Lowenthal, his emphasis. Cited in Paul Farmer, AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).

 

65

See Farmer, The Uses of Haiti, updated ed. (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003).

 

66

Max Mintz, Seeds of Empire: The American Revolutionary Conquest of the Iroquois (New York: New York University, 1999): pp. 75–76, 180ff.

 

67

General John Galvin, commander of the US Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), explaining strategy to Congress; see Fred Kaplan, “US General Says Contra Chances Improving,” Boston Globe, 20 May 1987, p. 9.

 

68

Michael Kinsley, “Down the Memory Hole with the Contras,” Wall Street Journal, 26 March 1987, sec. 1, p. 37.

 

69

Envío (Managua, Nicaragua), March 2003; September 2001.

 

70

“The Armageddon Effect: The Final Test,” Envío, October 2001.

 

71

On the 1984 elections, see Walker, Nicaragua, op. cit., pp. 156ff. On the reports of a wide range of expert observers, all ignored, and adherence within media and commentary to the Reaganite agenda on elections in enemy Nicaragua and its terrorist client states, see Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent, op. cit., chapter 3.

 

72

“The Armageddon Effect,” op. cit.

 

73

Kenneth M. Pollack, “Faith and Terrorism in the Muslim World,” review of The Crisis of Islam, by Bernard Lewis, New York Times, Sunday, 6 April 2003, sec. 7 (Book Review), p. 11.

 

74

News Services, “Iran-Contra Figure Named to Senior Post in White House,” Washington Post, 3 December 2002, sec. A, p. 2.

 

75

Abrams: see Steven R. Weisman, “Abrams Back in Capital Fray at Center of Mideast Battle,” New York Times, 7 December 2002, sec. A, p. 1. Reich and Noriega: see James Dao, “Bush Names Veteran Anti-Communist to Latin America Post,” New York Times, 10 January 2002, sec. A, p. 6.

 

76

Laura W. Murphy, Director of the ACLU’s Washington National Office, in ACLU press release, “ACLU Calls on President Bush to Disavow New Cyber-Spying Scheme That Seeks to Put Every American Under Scrutiny,” 14 November 2002. Online at: http://www.aclu.org/SafeandFree/SafeandFree.cfm?ID=11309&c=206 .

 

77

“The Armageddon Effect,” op. cit.

 

78

Ricardo Stevens, 19 October 2001, on Radio La Voz del Tropico (Panama); cited in North American Congress on Latin America (NACLA), Report on the Americas 35, no. 3 (November–December 2001).

 

79

Carlos Salinas, interview, Institute for Public Accuracy, San Francisco, Calif., 22 March 2002. Online at: http://www.accuracy.org/press_releases/PR032202.htm. On polls: see pp. 199ff. Of Hegemony or Survival.

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 5

 

1

Ronald Reagan cited in Bernard Weinraub, “Israeli Extends ‘Hand of Peace’ to Jordanians,” New York Times, 18 October 1985, sec. A, p. 1. George Shultz, State Department, Current Policy, no. 589 (24 June 1984) and no. 629 (25 October 1984). George W. Bush quoted by Rich Heffern, “The Snake Coiled Deep in Our Hearts,” National Catholic Reporter, 11 January 2002. Online at: http://natcath.org/NCR_Online/archives2/2002a/011102/011102a.htm.

 

2

For discussion of some of these questions, see Chomsky and Herman, Political Economy of Human Rights, op. cit; Herman, Real Terror Network, op. cit.; my Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, op. cit; and George, ed., Western State Terrorism, op. cit.

 

3

UN Inter-Agency Task Force, Africa Recovery Program/Economic Commission, South African Destabilization: The Economic Cost of Frontline Resistance to Apartheid (1989), p. 13, cited in Merle Bowen, "Mozambique and the Politics of Economic Recovery," Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Volume 15, Number 1 (Winter 1991): pp. 45-55.  Dereje Asrat et al., Children on the Front Line, 3rd ed. (New York and Geneva: UNICEF, 1989). For ANC material, see Joseba Zulaika and William A. Douglass, Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and Faces of Terrorism (New York: Routledge, 1996), p. 12.

 

4

Raymond Garthoff, A Journey through the Cold War: A Memoir of Containment and Coexistence (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2001), pp. 338, 387. John K. Cooley, Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America, and International Terrorism (London and Sterling, Va.: Pluto Press, 1999), pp. 11, 54.

 

5

Cooley, Unholy Wars, op. cit., pp. 230ff.

 

6

Miron Rezun, Saddam Hussein’s Gulf Wars: Ambivalent Stakes in the Middle East (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1992), pp. 58ff.

 

7

See my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., pp. 50–51, 236ff., and 278ff. Task Force on US-Korea Policy, “The Nuclear Crisis on the Korean Peninsula: Avoiding the Road to Perdition,” Current History 102, no. 663 (April 2003): pp. 152ff. For material on Duvalier, see my Year 501, op. cit., chapter 8, sec. 4.

 

8

Hannah Pakula, “Under the Eye of ‘the Big C,’”Washington Post, 27 December 1989, sec. A, p. 19. Howard LaFranchi, “US Speeds Tally of Iraq Offenses,” Christian Science Monitor, 25 November 2002, p. 1.

 

9

Ruth Sinai, AP, “Bush Preparing to Lift Ban on Government Loans to Iraq,” 22 December 1989. State Department to Senator Daniel Inouye, 26 February 1990. See my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., p. 152, for details.

 

10

Peter Spiegel and Richard McGregor, “Donald Rumsfeld: Saddam Hussein ‘Joins Pantheon of Failed Dictators,’” Financial Times (London), 10 April 2003, p. 3. Peter Spiegel, “Paul Wolfowitz: The Pentagon Hawk’s Vision of a War for Democracy,” Financial Times, 10 April 2003, p. 2. On Marcos, who was a particular favorite of President Reagan and Vice President Bush, see my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., chapters 7 and 8.

 

11

See Bedjauoi, Aroua, and Ait-Larbi, eds., An Inquiry into the Algerian Massacres, op. cit., for extensive documentation. William Burns cited in Steven R. Weisman, “U.S. to Sell Military Gear to Algeria to Help It Fight Militants,” New York Times, 10 December 2002, sec. A, p. 20. Robert Fisk, “The Double Standards, Dubious Morality and Duplicity of This Fight against Terror,” Independent (London), 4 January 2003, p. 18. Lara Marlowe, “Fanatical Islamic Terror Has Become Globalised,” Irish Times, 31 December 2002, p. 11.

 

12

For details and sources, see Thomas Ferguson and Joel Rogers, Right Turn: The Decline of the Democrats and the Future of American Politics (New York: Hill & Wang, 1986), and Michael Meeropol, Surrender: How the Clinton Administration Completed the Reagan Revolution, updated ed. (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 2003). See also my Turning the Tide, op. cit., chapter 5; and my Year 501, op. cit., chapter 11. On economic consequences, see State of Working America studies by the Economic Policy Institute (online at: http://www.epinet.org/) and Edward N. Wolff, Top Heavy: A Study of the Increasing Inequality of Wealth in America, updated ed. (New York: New Press, 1996).

 

13

On Libya’s role in Reaganite demonology, see my Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, op. cit., chapter 3; and Stephen Rosskamm Shalom, Imperial Alibis: Rationalizing U.S. Intervention after the Cold War (Boston: South End Press, 1993), chapter 7.

 

14

See my Necessary Illusions, op. cit., pp. 176–80.

 

15

See pp. 96–97 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

16

Anthony Lewis, “Abroad at Home: A Real Evil,” New York Times, 17 April 1986, sec. A, p. 31.

 

17

Hodding Carter III, “The Fickle Finger of the American Press,” Wall Street Journal, 14 September 1989, p. 1. Thomas Pickering quoted by Peter James Spielmann, AP, “U.S. Envoy Praises General Assembly,” 19 December 1989. For a review of the drug war, see my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., chapters 5 and 6, and Shalom, Imperial Alibis, op. cit., chapter 8.

 

18

Cited in Irene L. Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon and the Middle East, 1945–1958 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), p. 256.

 

19

Ferguson and Rogers, Right Turn, op. cit., p. 122. Jackie Calmes and John D. McKinnon, “Red Flag: With Deficits Back in Picture, Bush Agenda Faces Big Test,” Wall Street Journal, 11 November 2002, sec. A, p. 1.

 

20

Peronet Despeignes, “Bush Shelved Report on $42,200bn Deficit Fears,” Financial Times (London), 29 May 2003, p. 1. Laurence J. Kotlikoff and Jeffrey Sachs, “An Economic Menu of Pain,” Boston Globe, 19 May 2003, sec. A, p. 11. Fleischer cited in Peronet Despeignes, “White House Aware of ‘Crushing Debt,’” Financial Times, 30 May 2003, sec. 1, p. 1.

 

21

Paul Krugman, “Stating the Obvious,” New York Times, 27 May 2003, sec. A, p. 25.

 

22

Anatol Lieven, “The Push for War,” op. cit.

 

23

Martin Sieff, “Militarism and the Midterm Elections: White House Strategists Timed the Iraq War Debate to Dominate the Fall Congressional Campaign,” American Conservative, 4 November 2002. Online at: http://www.amconmag.com/11_4/militarism_and_the.html.

 

24

Donald Green and Eric Schickler, “Winning a Battle, Not a War,” New York Times, 12 November 2002, sec. A, p. 27.

 

25

Peter Slevin, “U.S. Drops Bid to Strengthen Germ Warfare Accord,” Washington Post, 19 September 2002, sec. A, p. 1.

 

26

Greg Gordon, Minneapolis Star-Tribune, 18 October 2002; “Attack on Iraq Could Lead Saddam to Unleash His Chemical and Biological Weapons, Warns Jane’s Report,” Jane’s Terrorism and Security Monitor, 12 November 2002. Online at http://www.janes.com/security/international_security/news/jtsm/jtsm021112_1_n.shtml. Sebastian Rotella, “Allies Find No Links Between Iraq, Al Qaeda,” Los Angeles Times, 4 November 2002, sec. A, p. 1; Jimmy Burns and Mark Huband, “Security Warning: “War ‘Will Fuel Unrest and More Terrorism,’” Financial Times (London), 24 January 2003, Middle East section, p. 5; Eric Lichtblau, “German Minister Says Al Qaeda Threat Is as Strong Now as Before Sept. 11,” New York Times, 25 January 2003, sec. A, p. 8; Marlise Simons, “Europeans Warn of Terror Attacks in Event of War in Iraq,” New York Times, 29 January 2003, sec. A, p. 18; and Philip Shenon, “Ridge Warns That Iraq War Could Raise Terrorist Threat,” New York Times, 4 March 2003, sec. A, p. 10.

 

27

Richard K. Betts, “Suicide from Fear of Death?,” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 1 (January–February 2003): p. 34ff.

 

28

Kenneth Waltz in Booth and Dunne, eds., Worlds in Collision, op. cit. US intelligence, see chapter 7, note 10, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

29

Study cited by Charles L. Glaser and Steve Fetter, “National Missile Defense and the Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy,” International Security 26, no. 1 (summer 2001): pp. 40–92. Online at: http://www.puaf.umd.edu/faculty/papers/fetter/Glaser.pdf. Richard Falkenrath, Robert Newman, and Bradley Thayer, America’s Achilles’ Heel: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack (Boston: MIT Press, 1998). Barton Gellman, “Struggles Inside the Government Defined Campaign,” Washington Post, 20 December 2001, sec. A, p. 1. Hart and Rudman, America—Still Unprepared, Still in Danger, op. cit.

 

30

Kaysen et al., War with Iraq, op. cit., citing Daniel Benjamin, “In the Fog of War, a Greater Threat,” Washington Post, 31 October 2002, sec. A, p. 23. Barton Gellman, “Seven Nuclear Sites Looted; Iraqi Scientific Files, Some Containers Missing,” Washington Post, 10 May 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

31

Youssef Ibrahim, “Bush’s Iraq Adventure Is Bound to Backfire,”International Herald Tribune, 1 November 2002.

 

32

See, for example, Medact, Collateral Damage: The Health and Environmental Costs of War on Iraq, 12 November 2002. Online at: http://www.medact.org/tbx/docs/Medact%20Iraq%20report_final3.pdf. Physicians for Human Rights, Health and Human Rights Consequences of War in Iraq, briefing paper, 14 February 2003. Online at: http://www.phrusa.org/research/iraq/021403.html. Nicholas Pelham, “Desperate Iraqis Face Mass Starvation, Warns UN,” Financial Times (London), 28 February 2003, Iraq Crisis section, p. 6; Kenneth H. Bacon, “Iraq: The Humanitarian Challenge,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 59, no. 1 (January-February 2003): pp. 26–27. Online at: http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/2003/jf03/jf03bacon.html. James Politi, Guy Dinmore, and Mark Turner, “Aid Agencies Hit at ‘Lack of Clarity’ in US Postwar Plans,” Financial Times (London), 27 February 2003, Iraq Crisis section, p. 8; and Ed Vulliamy, Burhan Wazir, and Gaby Hinsliff, “Aid Groups Warn of War Crisis in Iraq,” Observer (London), 22 December 2002, p. 2.

 

33

Turi Munthe, Introduction, in Munthe, ed., The Saddam Hussein Reader (New York: Thunder’s Mouth, 2002), p. xxvii.

 

34

The sanctions were technically imposed by the UN, but it was always understood that they were enforced by the US-UK, under UN aegis, and with little support, particularly in the cruel form that targets civilians.

 

35

Frances Williams, “Child Death Rate in Iraq Trebles,” Financial Times (London), 12 December 2002, International Economy section, p. 9. John Mueller and Karl Mueller, “Sanctions of Mass Destruction,” Foreign Affairs 78, no. 3 (May–June 1999).

 

 

36

Rajiv Chandrasekaran, “Cheap Food Rations Ensure That No One Goes Hungry,” Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, 10 February 2003, a notable exception to the general lack of coverage. See also Rajiv Chandrasekaran, “Stockpiling Popularity With Food: Rations Quell Iraqi Discontent,” Washington Post, February 3, 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

37

Denis Halliday, “Scylla and Charybdis,” and Hans van Sponeck, “The Policy of Punishment,” Al-Ahram Weekly 618 (26 December 2002–1 January 2003). Online at: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2002/618/sc6.htm and http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2002/618/sc5.htm.

 

38

Joy Gordon, “Cool War: Economic Sanctions as a Weapon of Mass Destruction,” Harper’s 305, no. 1830 (November 2002): pp. 43–49. For extensive detail and rebuttal to official justifications, see Eric Herring, “Between Iraq and a Hard Place: A Critique of the British Government’s Narrative on UN Economic Sanctions,” Review of International Studies 28, no. 1 (January 2002): pp. 39–56. Online at: http://www.casi.org.uk/conf99/doc/herring.html.

 

39

International Committee of the Red Cross, Iraq: 1989–1999, A Decade of Sanctions, 14 December 1999. Online at: http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList322/4BBFCEC7FF4B7A3CC1256B66005E0FB6.

 

40

Other arguments presented were too bizarre to discuss: e.g., that we should bomb and occupy Iraq because then we could stop torturing its population with sanctions.

 

41

John F. Burns, “Pakistan Antiterror Support Avoids Vow of Military Aid,” New York Times, 16 September 2001, sec. 1, p. 5. Samina Ahmed, “The United States and Terrorism in Southwest Asia: September 11 and Beyond,” International Security 26, no. 3 (winter 2001–02): pp. 79–93.

 

42

Thomas Friedman outlining Bush I administration thinking after it effectively authorized Saddam to crush the rebellions that might have overthrown him, “NATO Tries to Ease Security Concerns in Eastern Europe,” New York Times, 7 June 1991, sec. A, p. 1.

 

43

Mark Thomas, Column, New Statesman 15, no. 736 (9 December 2002): p. 12. See chapter 3, note 5, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

44

Gallup Poll International, Iraq Poll 2003, December 2002. Online at: http://www.gallup-international.com/download/GIA%20press%20release%20Iraq%20Survey%202003.pdf. Marc Champion, “European Leaders Declare Support For U.S. on Iraq,” Wall Street Journal, 30 January 2003, sec. A, p. 1; Steven R. Weisman, “U.S. Demands Iraq Show Cooperation by This Weekend,” New York Times, 10 February 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

45

Powell cited in Steven R. Weisman, “U.S. Demands Iraq Show Cooperation by This Weekend,” New York Times, 10 February 2003, sec. A, p. 1. Reference is to the original eight former Russian satellites.

 

46

Andrew Higgins, “‘New Europe’ Wary of U.S., Too,” Wall Street Journal, 18 March 2003, sec. A, p. 14.

 

47

Holbrooke cited in Lee Michael Katz, “Sooner or Later, Iraq to Be Dealt With,” National Journal 35, no. 6 (8 February 2003): pp. 460–61.

 

48

“The Op-Ed Alliance,” editorial, Wall Street Journal, 3 February 2003, sec. A, p. 16.

 

49

Thomas L. Friedman, “Vote France Off the Island,” New York Times, 9 February 2003, sec. 4, p. 15.

 

50

Todd S. Purdum, “Bush’s Moral Rectitude Is a Tough Sell in Old Europe,” New York Times, 30 January 2003, sec. A, p. 8. Max Boot, “A War for Oil? Not This Time,” New York Times, 13 February 2003, sec. A, p. 41. Robert Kagan, “Politicians with Guts,” Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, 10 February 2003; also in Washington Post, 31 January 2003, sec. A, p. 27.

 

51

Mark Landler, “Schroder’s Antiwar Stance Becomes a Balancing Act,” New York Times, 20 January 2003, sec. A, p. 13, quoting the spokesperson for the right-wing Christian Social Union party.

 

52

Polls from “"Reluctantly Under the Whip: Turkey, Iraq, and America,” The Economist 366, no. 8307 (18 January 2003): p. 48. Morton Abramowitz, “Turkey and Iraq, Act II,” Wall Street Journal, 16 January 2003, sec. A, p. 12.

 

53

Recep Tayyip Erdogan cited in Brian Groom, “Turks Hit at US Military Might,” Financial Times (London), 25 January 2003, p. 6.

 

54

Dexter Filkins, “Turkish Parliament Is Asked to Approve U.S. Troops,” New York Times, 26 February 2003, sec. A, p. 10; Filkins, “Turkey Backs United States Plans for Iraq,” New York Times, 6 February 2003, sec. A, p. 17. Amberin Zaman, “Iraqi Kurds Balk at Turks’ Role,” Los Angeles Times, 8 February 2003, sec. A, p. 11.

 

55

Steven R. Weisman, “Politics Shapes the Battlefield in Iraq,” New York Trimes, Sunday, 30 March 2003, sec. 4 (Week in Review), p. 3.

 

56

Paul Wolfowitz cited in Marc Lacey, “Turkey Rejects Criticism by U.S. Official Over Iraq,” New York Times, 8 May 2003, sec. A, p. 15.

 

57

Thomas Carothers, “Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror,” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 1 (January–February 2003): pp. 84ff.

 

58

Carothers in Exporting Democracy, op. cit., and In the Name of Democracy, op. cit. On the “yearning for democracy” in the Reagan years, see Neil A. Lewis, “What Can the U.S. Really Do About Haiti?,” New York Times, Sunday, 6 December 1987, sec. 4 (Week in Review), p. 2. For more details, see my Necessary Illusions, op. cit., p. 49.

 

59

Atilio Borón, State, Capitalism, and Democracy in Latin America (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995), chapter 7.

 

60

James E. Mahon, Jr., Mobile Capital and Latin American Development (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996).

 

61

Timothy A. Canova, “Banking and Financial Reform at the Crossroads of the Neoliberal Contagion,” American University International Law Review 14, no. 6 (1999), and “The Transformation of U.S. Banking and Finance: From Regulated Competition to Free-Market Receivership,” Brooklyn Law Review 60, no. 4 (winter 1995). César Gaaviria, OAS secretary-general, in Guy Dinmore, “Powell Overtures Fail to Impress Latin Americans,” Financial Times (London), 11 June 2003, Americas section, p. 9.

 

62

Ha-Joon Chang and Ajit Singh, “Public Enterprise in Developing Countries and Economic Efficiency,” UNCTAD Review 4 (1993): pp. 45–81.

 

63

Thomas E. Patterson, “Will Democrats Find Victory in the Ruins,” Boston Globe, 15 December 2000, sec. A, p. 27, and “Point of Agreement: We’re Glad It’s Over,” New York Times, 8 November 2000, sec. A, p. 27. Also see his book The Vanishing Voter: Public Involvement in an Age of Uncertainty (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002). Gary C. Jacobson, “A House and Senate Divided: The Clinton Legacy and the Congressional Elections of 2000,” Political Science Quarterly 116, no. 1 (spring 2001): pp. 5–27. Online at: http://www.psqonline.org/99_article.php3?byear=2001&bmonth=spring&a=02free. See also my articles in the January (“Elections 2000”) and February (“Voting Patterns and Abstention”) 2001 issues of Z Magazine. Online at: http://www.zmag.org/ZMag/articles/jan01chomsky.htm and http://zena.secureforum.com/Znet/zmag/feb01chomsky.htm.

 

64

Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976), p. 85. See also Michael Dawson, The Consumer Trap: Big Business Marketing in American Life (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2003), for an extensive review of the technique of “off-job control” developed from the 1920s as a counterpart to the “on-job control” of Taylorism, designed to turn people into controlled robots in life as well as work.

 

65

Hans von Sponeck, “Too Much Collateral Damage,” Toronto Globe and Mail, 2 July 2002. Online at: http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0702-03.htm. Halliday, “Scylla and Charybdis,” op. cit.

 

66

Thomas L. Friedman, “NATO Tries to Ease Security Concerns in Eastern Europe,” New York Times, 7 June 1991, sec. A, p. 1. Alan Cowell, “Kurds Assert Few Outside Iraq Wanted Them to Win,” New York Times, 11 April 1991, sec. A, p. 11. Friedman, “Because We Could,” New York Times, 4 June 2003, sec. A, p. 31.

 

67

Brent Scowcroft cited in Bob Herbert, “Spoils of War,” New York Times, 10 April 2003, sec. A, p. 27.

 

68

Chart shown in New York Times, 7 May 2003, sec. A, p. 14 (see James Dao and Eric Schmitt, “Postwar Planning: President Picks a Special Envoy to Rebuild Iraq,” New York Times, 7 May 2003, sec. A, p. 1); Source: Department of Defense and Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance.

 

69

David Sanger with John Tagliabue, “Bush Aide Says U.S., Not U.N., Will Rebuild Iraq,” New York Times, 5 April 2003, sec. B, p. 1.

 

70

Arthur Schlesinger: see p. 12 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 6

 

1

David Ignatius, “Europe’s Real Modernizers,” International Herald Tribune, 14–15 December 2002, from Washington Post, 13 December 2002, sec. A, p. 45.

 

2

For Financial Times, Business Week, Wall Street Journal, and other sources, see World Orders Old and New, op. cit., chapter 2.

 

3

Arie Farnam, “Children Left Parentless as Migrants Flee Poor Ukraine,” Christian Science Monitor, 10 June 2003, p. 7.

 

 

4

UN Development Program cited by Duncan Green and Matthew Griffith, “Globalization and Its Discontents,” International Affairs 78, no. 1 (January 2002): pp. 49–68. Updated and abridged version online at: http://www.cafod.org.uk/policy/globalisationandcritics200301.pdf. David E. Powell, “Death as a Way of Life: Russia’s Demographic Decline,” Current History 101, no. 657 (October 2002): pp. 344–48. For polls, see Michael Wines, “New Study Supports Idea Stalin Was Poisoned,” New York Times, 5 March 2003, sec. A, p. 3.

 

5

David Bruce cited in Costigliola, “Kennedy, the European Allies, and the Failure to Consult,” op. cit.

 

6

Henry Kissinger, American Foreign Policy, expanded ed. (New York: Norton, 1974).

 

7

See. p. 15 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

8

Christopher Thorne, The Issue of War: States, Societies, and the Far Eastern Conflict of 1941–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985): pp. 225, 211. For sources and general context, see my Deterring Democracy, op. cit.

 

9

Howard M. Wachtel, The Money Mandarins: The Making of a Supranational Economic Order, rev. ed. (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe; London: Pluto Press, 1990), pp. 44ff. Business Week, 7 April 1975.

 

10

Melvyn Leffler, A Preponderance of Power, op. cit., p. 339.

 

11

Britain: see Mark Curtis, Web of Deceit, op. cit., pp. 15–16. For the others, see Aaron David Miller, Search for Security: Saudi Arabian Oil and American Foreign Policy, 1939–1949 (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1980); Irvine H. Anderson, Aramco, the United States and Saudi Arabia: A Study of the Dynamics of Foreign Oil Policy, 1933–1950 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981); Michael B. Stoff, Oil, War and American Security: The Search for a National Policy on Foreign Oil, 1941–1947 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1980). Eisenhower cited in Steven L. Spiegel, The Other Arab-Israeli Conflict: Making America’s Middle East Policy from Truman to Reagan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), p. 51.

 

12

Task Force on US Korea Policy, The Nuclear Crisis on the Korean Peninsula: Avoiding the Road to Perdition (Washington, D.C.: Center for International Policy; Chicago: Center for East Asian Studies at the University of Chicago, 2003); abridged version, “The Nuclear Crisis on the Korean Peninsula,” op. cit.

 

13

Cited by Selig S. Harrison, “Gas and Geopolitics in Northeast Asia: Pipelines, Regional Stability, and the Korean Nuclear Crisis,” World Policy Journal 19, no. 4 (winter 2002–03): pp. 23–36. Online at: http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/articles/wpj02-4/harrison.html.

 

14

What follows concerning the SFPT is drawn from John Price, A Just Peace? The 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty in Historical Perspective, Japan Policy Research Institute, working paper no. 78 (June 2001). Online at: http://www.jpri.org/WPapers/wp78.html.

 

15

Human Rights Watch, “U.S.: Ashcroft Attacks Human Rights Law,” press release, 15 May 2003. Online at: http://www.hrw.org/press/2003/05/us051503.htm.

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 7

 

1

Michael Krepon cited in Faye Bowers and Howard LaFranchi, “Risk Rises for a Reignited Arms Race,” Christian Science Monitor, 31 December 2002, p. 1.

 

2

Butler cited in Hans Kristensen, BASIC Research Report 98, no.2 (British-American Security Information Council, March 1998), Appendix I. Online at: http://www.basicint.org/pubs/Research/1998nuclearfutures(2).htm. Aluf Benn, “Russia Concerned over Israel’s Nuclear Weapons Program,” Ha’aretz, 2 June 2003, reporting Russia’s demand that Israel’s nuclear program “be placed on the agenda of international organizations concerned with preventing nuclear proliferation.”

 

3

Knut Royce, “Secret Offer Iraq Sent Pullout Deal to U.S.,” Newsday, 29 August 1990; “Iraq Offers Deal to Quit Kuwait U.S. Rejects It, But Stays ‘Interested,’” Newsday, 3 January 1991, p. 5. See chapter 2, note 14, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

4

Ruth Sinai, “Israel No. 2 in West in Social Inequality,” and “An Existential Threat,” Ha’aretz, 3 December 2002.

 

5

Yitzhak ben-Yisrael, “Ashlayat ha-otsma ha-yisrealit” (The illusion of Israeli grandeur), Ha’aretz, 16 April 2002.

 

6

Galal Nassar, “The Axis of Evil—from Another Angle,” Al-Ahram Weekly 576 (7–13 March 2002). Online at: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2002/576/focus.htm.

 

7

Robert Olson, “Turkey-Iran Relations, 2000–2001: The Caspian, Azerbaijan and the Kurds,” Middle East Policy 9, no. 2 (June 2002): pp. 111–129.

 

8

Praful Bidwai, “A Zionist Recipe for India,” News International, 22 May 2003, citing Brajesh Mishra.

 

9

Lloyd George cited by V. G. Kiernan, European Empires from Conquest to Collapse, 1815–1960 (Leicester, England: Leicester University Press, in association with Fontana Paperbacks, 1982).

 

10

National Intelligence Council, Global Trends 2015: A Dialogue about the Future with Nongovernment Experts (Washington, D.C.: National Intelligence Council, December 2000).

 

11

National Intelligence Council, Global Trends 2015, op. cit.

 

12

Mark Curtis, Web of Deceit, op. cit., chapter 22.

 

13

Thom Shanker and Eric Schmitt, “Strategic Shift: Pentagon Expects Long-Term Access to Key Iraq Bases,” New York Times, 20 April 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

 

14

Bob Herbert, “What Is It Good For?,” New York Times, 21 April 2003, sec. A, p. 23.

 

15

On the planning context, see chapter 6 of Hegemony or Survival. The specific topics reviewed here are discussed in much greater detail in my World Orders Old and New, op. cit.; the updated edition of Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians (Cambridge: South End Press, 1999); Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, updated ed., op. cit.; and Middle East Illusions, Including Peace in the Middle East? Reflections on Justice and Nationhood, updated ed. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003). See these for sources, where not cited, and for fuller quotations. On broader issues there is a rich literature. Particularly pertinent for background here is Norman G. Finkelstein, Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict, updated ed. (London and New York: Verso, 2003).

 

16

Abraham Ben-Zvi, Decade of Transition: Eisenhower, Kennedy, and the Origins of the American-Israeli Alliance (New York: Columbia, 1998), p. 76. See Irene Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield, op. cit., and William Roger Louis and Roger Owen, eds., A Revolutionary Year: The Middle East in 1958 (London and New York: I. B. Tauris Press; Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2002). For an account of events in Indonesia, see Audrey R. Kahin and George McT. Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia (New York: New Press, 1995).

 

17

Ben-Zvi, Decade of Transition, op. cit., pp. 80ff. Separately, he attributes the statement to Eisenhower. See also Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield, op. cit., and Ilan Pappé in Lewis and Owen, eds., A Revolutionary Year, op. cit.

 

18

Efraim Inbar, The Israeli-Turkish Entente (London: King’s College London Mediterranean Studies, 2001), p. 25, written from a perspective close to official Israeli attitudes.

 

19

On these matters, see particularly Finkelstein, Image and Reality, op. cit. See also my Middle East Illusions, op. cit., chapter 5.

 

20

On the intricacies of this affair, see Irwin M. Wall, France, the United States, and the Algerian War (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2001).

 

21

See my Fateful Triangle, op. cit., for an account of the events and the reaction to them by media and commentators.

 

22

On Israel’s record in Lebanon in the 1980s and 1990s, see my Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, op. cit., and Fateful Triangle, updated edition, op. cit.

 

23

Michael Walzer, New Republic, 6 September 1982 (his emphasis).

 

24

James Bennet, “A Long, Bitter Feud Is Tipping Sharon’s Way,” New York Times, 24 January 2002, sec. A, p. 3.

 

25

Mark Sappenfield, “Americans, Europeans Differ on Mideast Sympathies,” Christian Science Monitor, 15 April 2002, p. 1. Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), Americans on the Israel-Palestinian Conflict (College Park, Md.: University of Maryland), 8 May 2002. Online at: http://www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/IsrPalConflict/contents.html.

 

26

See HaydarAbd al-Shafi’s interview with Rashid Khalidi, “Looking Back, Looking Forward,” Journal of Palestine Studies 32, no.1 (autumn 2002): pp. 28–35.

 

27

Shlomo Ben-Ami, A Place for All (Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1998). See my introduction to Roane Carey, ed., The New Intifada: Resisting Israel’s Apartheid (London and New York: Verso, 2001), reprinted in my Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, op. cit.

 

28

Avi Primor, “Sharon’s South African Strategy,” Ha’aretz, 19 September 2002. On current Israeli strategies, see particularly Tanya Reinhart, Israel/Palestine: How to End the War of 1948 (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002), and Baruch Kimmerling, Politicide: Ariel Sharon’s Wars against the Palestinians (New York: Verso, 2003).

 

29

Akiva Eldar, “The Peace That Nearly Was at Taba,” Ha’aretz, 14 February 2002.

 

30

Hussein Agha and Robert Malley, “The Last Negotiation: How to End the Middle East Peace Process,” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 3 (May–June 2002): p. 10ff.

 

31

B’Tselem, Land Grab: Israel’s Settlement Policy in the West Bank, May 2002. Online at: http://www.btselem.org/English/Publications/Summaries/Land_Grab_Map.asp.

 

32

Geoffrey Aronson, Report on Israeli Settlement in the Occupied Territories 13, no. 2 (March-April 2003). Online at: http://www.fmep.org/reports/2003/v13n2.html.

 

33

Cited in Christopher Adams, Guy Dinmore, and Harvey Morris, “Middle East ‘Road Map’ Launched,” Financial Times, 1 May 2003, sec. 1, p. 1.

 

34

“Proposal for ‘Final and Comprehensive Settlement’ to Middle East Conflict,” New York Times, 1 May 2003, sec. A, p. 7.

 

35

Sharmila Devi, “Budget Cuts: Israelis Strike in Protest at Austerity Package,” Financial Times, 1 May 2003, p. 7, citing Ha’aretz.

 

36

Harvey Morris, “Israeli Security Wall ‘Threatens to Damage Palestinian Economy,” Financial Times, 5 May 2002, p. 7. Eva Balslev and Katrin Sommer, “Case Study: Qalqilya,” News from Within (Jerusalem), October 2002.

 

37

Sara Roy, “The ‘Wall’ Is Not Just a Wall,” Daily Star (Beirut), 2 June 2003. On Sharon’s 1992 plan, and others across the spectrum at the same time, see the analysis by Peace Now, reviewed in World Orders Old and New, op. cit., p. 224.

 

38

Amira Hass, “The State Sharon Is Talking About,” Ha’aretz, 28 May 2003.

 

39

Greg Myre, “Sharon Defends Peace Plan Against Critics in Likud,” New York Times, 27 May 2003, sec. A, p. 12.

 

 

40

High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention, “Declaration” (report on Israeli settlement drafted at a conference concerning the application of international humanitarian law in the occupied Palestinian territories, Geneva, Switzerland, 15 December 2001). Online at: http://www.fmep.org/reports/2002/v12n1.html#7.

 

41

Cited in John Donnelly and Charles A. Radin, “Powell’s Trip Is Called a Way to Buy Time for Sharon Sweep,” Boston Globe, 9 April 2002, sec. A, p. 1.

 

42

“U.S. Votes against Anti-Israel Resolution at UN,” Ha’aretz, 4 December 2003; Jerusalem Post staff and news agencies, “US Defies UN Anti-Israel Vote,” Jerusalem Post, 4 December 2003, p. 1. The votes were reported by the AP and Agence France-Presse on 3 December 2003.

 

43

James Bennet, “Younger Leaders Are Competing to Shape Palestinians’ Future,” New York Times, 17 March 2003, sec. A, p. 3.

 

44

Elisabeth Bumiller, “Bush Says Ousting Hussein Could Aid Peace in Mideast,” New York Times, 27 February 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

45

John Donnelly, “Afghanistan: Aid Officials Criticize Cuts in US Assistance,” Boston Globe, 11 September 2002, sec. A, p. 9.

 

46

Douglas Hurd, “Put Middle East Peace before War in Iraq,” Financial Times, 3 December 2002, Comment & Analysis, p. 19.

 

 

47

Ben Kaspit, “Two Years of the Intifada” (in Hebrew), part one, Ma’ariv, 6 September 2002.

 

48

Reuven Pedatzur, “Blessings of War,” review of Milhamot lo Korot Mei’atzman (Wars don’t just happen), by Motti Golani, Ha’aretz, 12 May 2003. Online at: http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=290847&contrassID=2&subContrassID=20&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y.

 

49

Ben Kaspit, “Shnatayim la-Intifada,” op. cit. Doron Rosenblum, “Our Friend the Bulldozer,” Ha’aretz, 26 September 2002.

 

50

Patrick Sloyan, “Buried Alive: U.S. Tanks Used Plows to Kill Thousands in Gulf War Trenches,” Newsday, 12 September 1991, p. 1.

 

51

Quarterly Review Staff Study,” Air Universities Quarterly Review 6, no.4 (winter 1953-54). For more extensive quotes and discussion, see my Towards a New Cold War: Essays on the Current Crisis and How We Got There (New York: Pantheon Books, 1982; New Press, 2003), pp. 112–13.

 

52

Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India (Asia Publishing House, 1961). Stanley A. Wolpert, A New History of India, 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993). Gordon Johnson, C. A. Bayly, and John F. Richards, eds., The New Cambridge History of India, 3 vols. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987–93). Jack Beeching, The Chinese Opium Wars, 1st American ed. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975). This was the immediate background of Mill’s classic essay on humanitarian intervention. See chapter 2, note 73, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

53

Mark Curtis, Web of Deceit, op. cit., chapter 15.

 

54

Kaspit, “Shnatayim la-Intifada,” op. cit.

 

55

On the methods of the first Intifada, see Norman Finkelstein, The Rise and Fall of Palestine: A Personal Account of the Intifada Years (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996). See also my Fateful Triangle op. cit., chapter 8, for a personal account and Israeli sources, the latter extended considerably in Necessary Illusions, op. cit., Appendix 4.2. More generally, see Zachary Lockman and Joel Beinin, eds., Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising against Israeli Occupation (Boston: South End Press, 1989).

 

56

Yoram Peri, Davar, 10 December 1982. Araboushim is Israeli slang that is roughly equivalent to niggers or kikes. Moshe Dayan, internal government discussion, cited in Yossi Beilin, Mehiro shel Ihud (in Hebrew; Israel: Revivim, 1985), p. 42.

 

57

 “Unbridled Force,” editorial, Ha’aretz, 16 March 2003. The conclusion will come as no surprise to those who have been reading the regular reports of its correspondents, notably Gideon Levy and Amira Hass.

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 8

 

1

Strobe Talbott and Nayan Chanda, eds., The Age of Terror: America and the World after September 11 (New York: Basic Books, 2001).

 

2

For US definitions, see my “International Terrorism: Image and Reality” in Alexander George, ed., Western State Terrorism, op. cit. (later reprinted in Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, op. cit.). British definition cited by Curtis, Web of Deceit, op. cit., p. 93.

 

3

On the reformulation of the official definitions, see Scott Atran, “The Genesis of Suicide Terrorism,” Science 299, no. 5612 (7 March 2003): pp. 1534–39. He notes that the revised definitions still make “no principled distinction between ‘terror’ as defined by the U.S. Congress and ‘counterinsurgency’ as allowed in U.S. armed forces manuals,” one of the perennial problems in defining terror in a doctrinally suitable way.

 

4

McClintock, Instruments of Statecraft, op. cit., chapter 3.

 

5

UN Resolution 42/159, 7 December 1987. The State Department identifies 1987 as the peak year of terrorism.

 

6

For a remarkable illustration concerning Vietnam, see p. 193 of Hegemony or Survival. On Iraq, see ABC Middle East correspondent Charles Glass, “I Blame the British,” London Review of Books 25, no. 8 (17 April 2003). Online at: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n08/glas01_.html.

 

7

Charles Maechling, “The Murderous Mind of the Latin Military,” Los Angeles Times, 18 March 1982.

 

8

Colombian Human Rights Committee, Colombia Update 1, no.4 (December 1989). See my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., pp. 130ff.

 

9

McClintock, Instruments of Statecraft, op. cit., p. 222.

 

10

Raymond Bonner, “Southeast Asia Remains Fertile for Al Qaeda,” New York Times, 28 October 2002, sec. A, p. 1.

 

11

Talbott and Chanda, Age of Terror, op. cit.

 

12

Martha Crenshaw, “Why America? The Globalization of Civil War”; Ivo H. Daalder and James M. Lindsay, “Nasty, Brutish, and Long: America’s War on Terrorism”; and David C. Rapoport, “The Fourth Wave: September 11 in the History of Terrorism,” Current History 100, no. 650 (December 2001): pp. 425–32, pp. 403–09, and pp. 419–25.

 

13

For details, see my Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, op. cit., including the added chapter in updated edition (2002). George, ed., Western State Terrorism, op. cit. On Clinton-backed Israeli invasions of Lebanon in the 1990s, beyond the illegally occupied southern region, see my Fateful Triangle,updated edition, op. cit.

 

14

Crenshaw, “Why America?” op. cit.

 

15

John F. Burns, “Ringleader of ’85 Achille Lauro Hijacking Says Killing Wasn’t His Fault,” New York Times, sec. A, p. 14.

 

16

Justin Huggler and Phil Reeves, “Once Upon a Time in Jenin,” The Independent (London), 25 April 2002, pp. 4–7.

 

17

See my Fateful Triangle, op. cit., p. 136.

 

18

Gloria Cooper, “Darts and Laurels,” Columbia Journalism Review 41, no. 2 (July–August 2002): pp. 14ff. Online at: http://archives.cjr.org/year/02/4/dartsandlaurels.asp.

 

19

See p. 52 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

20

 Judith Miller, “South Asia Called Major Terror Hub in a Survey by U.S.,” New York Times, 30 April 2000, sec. 1, p. 1. Robert Pearson, Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 26, no.1 (winter–spring 2002).

 

21

See pp. 61–62 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

22

Jean Bethke Elshtain, “A Just War?,” Boston Globe, 6 October 2002, Ideas section; also see her essay in Booth and Dunne, eds., Worlds in Collision, op. cit. Much of the world will be interested to learn that the US has never engaged in the practice of “unleashing terrorists” or otherwise threatening or harming civilians.

 

23

Bill Keller, “The Loyal Opposition,” New York Times, 24 August 2002, sec. A, p. 13.

 

24

A media review by Jeff Nygaard found one reference to the Gallup poll, a brief notice in the Omaha World-Herald that “completely misrepresented the findings.” Nygaard Notes 132 (16 November 2001). Online at: http://www.nygaardnotes.org/issues/nn0132.html . Envío (Managua, Nicaragua), October 2001.

 

25

Walter Pincus, “Mueller Outlines Origin, Funding of Sept. 11 Plot,” Washington Post, 6 June 2002, sec. A, p. 1. Emphases mine.

 

26

Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im, “Upholding International Legality against Islamic and American Jihad,in Booth and Dunne, eds., Worlds in Collision, op. cit., pp. 162­–171.

 

27

Abdul Haq, “US Bombs Are Boosting the Taliban,” edited version of 11 October 2001 interview with Anatol Lieven, Guardian (London), 2 November 2001, Comment & Analysis, p. 20. Online at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/waronterror/story/0,1361,585302,00.html. Peshawar gathering: Barry Bearak, “Leaders of the Old Afghanistan Prepare for the New,” New York Times, 25 October 2001, sec. B, p. 4; Farhan Bokhari and John Thornhill, “Traditional Leaders Call for Peace Jihad,” Financial Times(London), 25 October 2001, p. 3, and “Afghan Peace Assembly Call,” Financial Times (London), 26 October 2001, p. 2; John F. Burns, “Afghan Gathering in Pakistan Backs Future Role for King,” New York Times, 26 October 2001, sec. B, p. 4; Indira A.R. Lakshmanan, “1,000 Afghan Leaders Discuss a New Regime,” Boston Globe, 25 October 2001, sec. A, p. 24; and “Delegates Demand Bin Laden Leave,” Boston Globe, 26 October 2001, sec. A, p. 31. To learn about the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA), go to http://www.afghanwomensmission.org/index.shtml or http://rawa.fancymarketing.net/index.html. The relevant information was available throughout in independent (“alternative”) journals, published and electronic, including ZNet (online at: http://www.zmag.org ). For additional quotes, see “The World after Sept. 11,” reprinted in Pirates and Emperors, Old and New, op. cit., chapter 6.

 

29

Larry Rohter, “In Latin America, the Cult of Revolution Wanes,” New York Times, Sunday, 18 May 2003, sec. 4 (Week in Review), p. 3.

 

30

Daniel Grann, “Giving ‘the Devil’ His Due,” Atlantic Monthly 287, no. 6 (June 2001): pp. 54–71.

 

31

Talbott and Chanda, eds., Age of Terror, op. cit., pp. xv ff. Their emphasis. They add that the problem and solution are “more complicated” but appear to accept the conclusion and regard the US-UK bombing as appropriate and properly “calibrated.”

 

32

Christopher Greenwood, “International Law and the ‘War against Terrorism,’” International Affairs (London) 78, no. 2 (April 2002): pp. 301–18. Thomas M. Franck, “Terrorism and the Rights of Self-Defense,” American Journal of International Law 95, no. 4 (October 2001): pp. 839–843.

 

33

Michael Howard, “What’s in a Name? How to Fight Terrorism,” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 1 (January–February 2002): pp. 8ff.

 

34

Frank C. Schuller and Thomas D. Grant, “Terror: Measuring the Cost, Calculating the Response,” Current History 101, no. 654 (April 2002): pp. 184–86.

 

35

Werner Daum, German ambassador to the Sudan from 1996 to 2000, “Universalism and the West: An Agenda for Understanding,” Harvard International Review 23, no. 2 (summer 2001): pp. 19–23. Online at: http://www.hir.harvard.edu/articles/index.html?id=909. The same estimate is given by Jonathan Belke, regional director of the Near East Foundation, who has field experience in the Sudan, “A Year Later, US Attack on Factory Still Hurts Sudan,” Boston Globe, 22 August 1999, sec. F, p. 2. Kenneth Roth, executive director of Human Rights Watch, warned at once that the bombing had disrupted assistance to 2.4 million people at risk of starvation and had forced the indefinite postponement of “crucial” relief efforts in places where dozens of people were dying daily; letter to President Clinton, 15 September 1998. Online at: http://www.hrw.org/press98/sept/sudan915.htm. On these and other assessments and related material, see my 9-11 (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2001), pp. 45ff.

 

36

Christopher Hitchens, “Knowledge (and Power),” The Nation 274, no. 22 (10 June 2002): p. 9. Online at: http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20020610&s=hitchens.

 

37

George W. Bush cited in Anthony Shadid, “US Rebuffs Second Iraq Offer on Arms Inspection,” Boston Globe, 6 August 2002, sec. A, p. 1.

 

38

Richard J. Aldrich, “America Used Islamists to Arm the Bosnian Muslims,” Guardian (London), 22 April 2002, Leader, p. 16.

 

39

National Intelligence Council, Global Trends 2015, op. cit.

 

40

Kenneth Waltz in Booth and Dunne, eds., Worlds in Collision, op. cit. Also see p. 123 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

41

International lawyer for multinationals quoted by Neil MacFarquhar, “Saudi Dilemma: A Native Son, a Heinous Act,” New York Times, 5 October 2001, sec. A, p. 1.

 

42

Sumit Ganguly, “Putting South Asia Back Together Again,” Current History 100, no. 650 (December 2001): pp. 410–14; Philip C. Wilcox, Jr., US ambassador at large for counterterrorism, 1994–97, “The Terror,” New York Review of Books 48, no. 16 (18 October 2001); Rohan Gunaratna quoted by Thomas Powers, “Secrets of September 11,” New York Review of Books 49, no. 15 (10 October 2002). Wolfowitz quoted in Vanity Fair, interview by Sam Tennenhaus, 9 May 2003; he is referring specifically to the US presence in Saudi Arabia.

 

43

“Death in Riyadh: Crushing al-Qaeda Will Require Might and Right,” editorial, Financial Times (London), 14 May 2003, p. 22; P. W. Singer, “America and the Islamic World,” Current History 101, no. 658 (November 2002): pp. 355–64; Daniel Byman, “The War on Terror Requires Subtler Weapons,” Financial Times (London), 27 May 2003, p. 17.

 

44

Anthony Shadid, “Old Arab Friends Turn Away From U.S.,” Washington Post, 26 February 2003, sec. A, p. 1.

 

45

James A. Bill and Rebecca Bill Chavez, “The Politics of Incoherence: The United States and the Middle East,” Middle East Journal 56, no. 4 (autumn 2002): pp. 562–75. Online at: http://www.mideasti.org/pdf/Bill%20galley562-575.pdf.

 

46

David Johnston and Don Van Natta, Jr., “U.S. Officials See Signs of a Revived Al Qaeda,” New York Times, 17 May 2003, sec. A, p. 1. Byman, “The War on Terror Requires Subtler Weapons,” Financial Times, 27 May 2003, p. 17. Don Van Natta, Jr., and Desmond Butler, “Anger on Iraq Seen as New Qaeda Recruiting Tool,” New York Times, 16 March 2003, sec. 1, p. 1. Scott Atran, “Who Wants to Be a Martyr?,” New York Times, 5 May 2003, sec. A, p. 23.

 

47

Faye Bowers, “Al Qaeda May Be Rebuilding,” Christian Science Monitor, 5 May 2003, p. 1.

 

48

Jason Burke, “The Return of al Qaeda: The Tentacles of Terror,” Observer (London), Sunday, 18 May 2003, p. 17. Jessica Stern, “How America Created a Terrorist Haven,” New York Times, 20 August 2003, sec. A, p. 21.

 

49

For further quotes and background, see Gilbert Achcar, The Clash of Barbarisms: September 11 and the Making of the New World Disorder (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2002), pp. 58ff. That these are their goals is also assumed by Washington planners; see Wolfowitz interview, Vanity Fair, op. cit.

 

50

Michael Kranish, “US Company Has Long History with Saudis,” Boston Globe, 15 May 2003, sec. A, p. 20; Joseph B. Treaster, “Compound Was a Lure for Terror, Experts Say,” New York Times, 14 May 2003, sec. A, p. 12.

 

51

Michael Ignatieff, “The Burden,” New York Times Magazine, 5 January 2003, sec. 6, pp. 22–30.

 

52

Ami Ayalon interview in Le Monde, 22 December 2001, reprinted in Roane Carey and Jonathan Shanin, The Other Israel: Voices of Refusal and Dissent (New York: New Press, 2002). Uri Sagie, Lights within the Fog (in Hebrew; Tel Aviv: Yedioth Ahronoth-Chemed, 1998), pp. 300ff.

 

53

Yehoshaphat Harkabi cited by Amnon Kapeliouk, Le Monde diplomatique, February 1986.

 

54

For sources and background discussion, see my World Orders, Old and New, op. cit., pp. 79, 201ff. Now also Salim Yaqub, “Imperious Doctrines: U.S.-Arab Relations from Dwight D. Eisenhower to George W. Bush,” Diplomatic History 26, no. 4 (fall 2002): pp. 571–91.

 

55

Peter Waldman et al., “The Question in the Rubble: Why Us?,” Wall Street Journal, 14 September 2001, sec. A, p. 6; see also Waldman and Hugh Pope, “Worlds Apart: Some Muslims Fear War on Terrorism Is Really a War on Them,” Wall Street Journal, 21 September 2001, sec. A, p. 1. See my 9-11, op. cit., and, for more detail, Middle East Illusions, op. cit., chapter 10.

 

56

Ahmed Rashid, “Is Terror Worse Than Oppression,” Far Eastern Economic Review (Hong Kong) 165, no. 30 (1 August 2002): pp. 12–15. American University of Cairo Professor El Lozy, writer Azizuddin El-Kaissouni, and Warren Bass of the Council on Foreign Relations quoted by Joyce Koh, “‘Two-Faced’ US Policy Blamed for Arab Hatred,” Straits Times (Singapore), 14 August 2002.

 

57

Youssef M. Ibrahim, “Democracy: We Must Be Careful What We Wish For,” Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, 31 March 2003; and, “Democracy: Be Careful What You Wish For,” Washington Post, March 23, 2002, sec. B, p. 3.

 

58

Jonathan Steele, “It Feels Like 1967 All Over Again,” Guardian (London), 9 April 2003, Comment & Analysis, p. 22.

 

59

Susan Sachs, “Egyptian Intellectual Speaks of the Arab World’s Despair,” New York Times, 8 April 2003, sec. B, p. 1.

 

NOTES TO CHAPTER 9

 

1

John Rockwell, “The Aftermath: Peering Into the Abyss of the Future,” New York Times, 23 September 2001, sec. 2, p. 1.

 

2

Paul Krugman, “A No-Win Outcome,” New York Times, 21 December 2001, sec. A, p. 39.

 

3

STRATCOM, Essentials of Post–Cold War Deterrence, 1995. Declassified text online at: http://www.nautilus.org/nukestrat/USA/Advisory/Essentials95.txt. For more extensive quotes, see my New Military Humanism, op. cit., chapter 6. On subsequent presidential directives, see Center for Defense Information, Defense Monitor 29, no. 3 (2000). See Morton Mintz, “Two Minutes to Launch,” American Prospect 12, no. 4 (26 February 2001): pp. 25–29, on the legislative bar to de-alerting. Online at: http://www.prospect.org/print/V12/4/mintz-m.html. On the 1969 alert, intended to “signal” to Moscow US intentions in Vietnam, see Scott D. Sagan and Jeremi Suri, “The Madman Nuclear Alert: Secrecy, Signaling, and Safety in October 1969,” International Security 27, no. 4 (spring 2003): pp. 150–83. The most crucial events ignored were a serious Russia-China border conflict, which might have led to Russian misinterpretation of the “signal,” with grim consequences.

 

4

See chapter 5, note 29, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

5

Scott Peterson, “Loose Nukes Get Shortchanged?,” Christian Science Monitor, 9 May 2001, p. 6; Walter Pincus, “Bush Targets Russia Nuclear Programs for Cuts,” Washington Post, 18 March 2001, sec. A, p. 23. A terse announcement suggested a possible reversal of the policy, in reaction to 9-11; Elisabeth Bumiller, “U.S. Drops Threat to Cut Aid to Russia For Disarming,” New York Times, 28 December 2001, sec. A, p. 7. On successes of cooperative threat reduction initiated by Senators Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar, see Michael Krepon, “Dominators Rule,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 59, no. 1 (January-February 2003): pp. 55–60. Online at: http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/2003/jf03/jf03krepon.html.

 

6

Steven Lee Myers, “Study Said to Find U.S. Missile Shield Might Incite China,” New York Times, 10 August 2000, sec. A, p. 1; Bob Drogin and Tyler Marshall, “Missile Shield Analysis Warns of Arms Buildup,” Los Angeles Times, 19 May 2000, p. 1; Michael Byers, “Back to the Cold War?,” London Review of Books 22, no. 12 (22 June 2000). Online at: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v22/n12/byer01_.html. See also Michael R. Gordon and Steven Lee Myers, “Risk of Arms Race Seen in U.S. Design of Missile Defense,” New York Times, 28 May 2000, sec. 1, p. 1, and Glaser and Fetter, “National Missile Defense,” op. cit.

 

7

David E. Sanger, “U.S. Will Drop Objections To China’s Missile Buildup,” New York Times, 2 September 2001, sec. 1, p. 1; Sanger, “U.S. Restates Its Stand On Missiles In China,” New York Times, 5 September 2001, sec. A, p. 3; Jane Perlez, “Chinese Firm Is Punished By the U.S. For Arms Sale,” New York Times, 2 September 2001, sec. 1, p. 9. Clinton: see William J. Broad, “U.S.-Russian Talks Revive Old Debates on Nuclear Warnings,” New York Times, 1 May 2000, sec. A, p. 8.

 

8

Steinbruner and Lewis, “The Unsettled Legacy of the Cold War,” op. cit.

 

9

David Ruppe, “Nuclear Weapons: RAND Report Says Accidental Launch Threat Growing,” Global Security Newswire, 22 May 2003. Online at: http://www.nti.org/d_newswire/issues/newswires/2003_5_22.html. Rand Corporation, Beyond the Nuclear Shadow, May 2003. Online at: http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1666/. Paul Webster, “Just Like Old Times,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 59, no. 4 (July–August 2003): p. 30. Online at: http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/2003/ja03/ja03webster.html.

 

10

Judith Miller, “Study Urges More Action to Cut Risks From Weapons Stockpiles,” New York Times, 20 January 2003, sec. A, p. 14.

 

11

Krepon, “Dominators Rule,” op. cit.

 

12

Michael R. Gordon, “Nuclear Arms: For Deterrence or Fighting?,” New York Times, 11 March 2002, sec. A, p. 1. Eric Schmitt, “U.S. Tries To Explain New Policy For A-Bomb,” 11 March 2002, sec. A, p. 8. William M. Arkin, “The Nuclear Option in Iraq,” Los Angeles Times, 26 January 2003, sec. M, p. 1.

 

13

Carl Hulse and James Dao, “Cold War Long Over, Bush Administration Examines Steps to a Revamped Arsenal,” New York Times, 29 May 2003, sec. A, p. 23.

 

14

Scott Baldauf, “US May Stoke Asian Arms Race,” Christian Science Monitor, 15 May 2003, p. 6.

 

15

Peter Slevin, “Analysts: New Strategy Courts Unseen Dangers; First Strike Could Be Precedent for Other Nations,” Washington Post, 22 September 2002, sec. A, p. 1.

 

16

McGeorge Bundy, Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years (New York: Random House, 1988), p. 326. Bundy is skeptical about the prospects, but his subjective judgment does not bear on the point here.

 

17

Adam B. Ulam, “A Few Unresolved Mysteries about Stalin and the Cold War in Europe: A Modest Agenda for Research,” Journal of Cold War Studies 1, no. 1 (winter 1999): pp. 100–16. Online at: http://matilde.ingentaselect.com/vl=2491866/cl=80/nw=1/rpsv/catchword/mitpress/15203972/v1n1/s5/p110. Melvyn P. Leffler, “Inside Enemy Archives: The Cold War Reopened,” Foreign Affairs 75, no. 4 (July–August 1996): pp. 120–35. James Warburg, Germany: Key to Peace (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953), pp. 189ff.

 

18

See chapter 4, note 3, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

19

Kenneth N. Waltz, “America as a Model for the World? A Foreign Policy Perspective,” PS: Political Science & Politics 24, no. 4 (December 1991): pp. 667–70. Garthoff and Kaufmann cited in my Deterring Democracy, op. cit., p. 26.

 

20

See particularly US Space Command, Vision for 2020, February 1997. Online at: http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/usspac/.

 

21

High Frontier (Heritage Foundation) cited by Gordon Mitchell, “The American National Missile Defence: Political Implications and Impact on Disarmament,” presentation to the Centre for Defence Studies, Royal Defence College (Brussels, Belgium), 30 January 2001. See Gordon R. Mitchell, Strategic Deception: Rhetoric, Science, and Politics in Missile Defense Advocacy (East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University Press, 2000).

 

22

Garthoff, A Journey through the Cold War, op. cit., pp. 357–58.

 

23

Jack Hitt, “Battlefield: Space,” New York Times Magazine, 5 August 2001, sec. 6, pp. 30–39, quoting intelligence consultant George Friedman.

 

24

David Pugliese, National Post (Toronto), 24 May 2000. See also Pugliese, “Missile System to ‘Preserve’ American Dominance: Threat of Rogue Attack Highly Unlikely, Defence Documents Say,” Ottawa Citizen, 24 May 2000, sec. A, p. 1.

 

25

Sha Zukang cited by Michael R. Gordon, “China, Fearing a Bolder U.S., Takes Aim on Proposed National Missile Shield,” New York Times, 29 April 2001, sec. 1, p. 10. EP-3 quote from William M. Arkin, “The Last Word: Nuclear Posturing,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 57, no. 3 (May–June 2001): p. 80. Online at: http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/2001/mj01/mj01lastword.html.

 

26

Andrew J. Bacevich, “Different Drummers, Same Drum,” National Interest, no. 64 (summer 2001): pp. 67–77; Lawrence F. Kaplan, “Offensive Line,” New Republic 224, no. 11 (12 March 2001): p. 20. Rand study cited by Kaplan.

 

27

See pp. 42–43 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

28

Michael Krepon, “Lost in Space: The Misguided Drive Toward Antisatellite Weapons,” Foreign Affairs 80, no. 3 (May–June 2001): pp. 2–8. Online at: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20010501facomment4763/michael-krepon/lost-in-space-the-misguided-drive-toward-antisatellite-weapons.html. See also his comments in Hitt, “Battlefield Space,” op. cit. Gordon Mitchell, “Japan-U.S. Missile Defense Collaboration: Rhetorically Delicious, Deceptively Dangerous,” Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 25, no. 1 (winter 2001): pp. 85–108, citing Charles Perrow. Online at: http://www.pitt.edu/~gordonm/JPubs/JapanTMD.pdf. See also Karl Grossman, Weapons in Space (New York: Seven Stories, 2001).

 

29

Air Force Space Command, Strategic Master Plan (SMP) FY04 and Beyond, 5 November 2002. Online at: http://www.peterson.af.mil/hqafspc/library/AFSPCPAOffice/Final%2004%20SMP--Signed!.pdf.

 

30

William M. Arkin, “The Best Defense,” Los Angeles Times, 14 July 2002, sec. M, p. 1. Michael J. Sniffen, AP, “Pentagon Developing System to Track Every Vehicle in a City,” 1 July 2003.

 

31

Hannah Hoag, “Neuroengineering: Remote Control,” Nature 423, no. 6942 (19 June 2003): pp. 796–98.

 

32

See chapter 7, note 10, of Hegemony or Survival.

 

33

Tomas Valasek, “Europe’s Missile Defense Options,” CDI Defense Monitor 30, no. 3 (March 2001): pp. 6ff. Online at: http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?DocumentID=1602&StartRow=1&ListRows=10&appendURL=&Orderby=D.DateLastUpdated%20deSC&programID=75&IssueID=0&Issue=&Date_From=&Date_To=&Keywords=valasek&ContentType=&Author=&from_page=documents.cfm. Mitchell, “Japan-U.S. Missile Defense Collaboration,” op. cit.

 

34

See p. 121 of Hegemony or Survival. Agence France-Presse, “Annan Pleads for Accord at UN Disarmament Conference,” 23 January 2001. Reuters, 15 February 2001; reported in the Deseret News (Salt Lake City), virtually the only coverage of the 2001 conference meetings in the US media. Frances Williams, “China Calls for Ban on ‘Weaponisation’ of Space,” Financial Times, 8 June 2001, p. 6.

 

35

Judith Miller, “Chemical Weapons Ban May Suffer for Lack of Dues From Treaty’s Parties,” New York Times, 27 April 2001, sec. A, p. 7; Marlise Simons, “Money Short for Battle on Chemicals Used in War,” New York Times, 5 October 2001, sec. A, p. 9; Michael R. Gordon and Judith Miller, “U.S. Germ Warfare Review Faults Plan on Enforcement,” New York Times, 20 May 2001, sec. 1, p. 5; Richard Waddington, Reuters, “U.S. Snarls Germ Warfare Talks,” Boston Globe, 8 December 2001. Oliver Meier, “Neither Trust Nor Verify, Says U.S.,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 57, no. 6 (November–December 2001): pp. 19–22. Michael R. Gordon, “Germ Warfare Talks Open in London; U.S. Is the Pariah,” New York Times, 24 July 2001, sec. A, p. 11. See also William J. Broad and Judith Miller, “U.S. Recently Produced Anthrax in a Highly Lethal Powder Form,” New York Times, 13 December 2001, sec. A, p. 1.

 

36

Mark Wheelis and Malcolm Dando, “Back to Bioweapons?,” and Catherine Auer, “Killer ‘Non-Lethals,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 59, no. 1 (January–February 2003): pp. 40–46. Online at: http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/2003/jf03/jf03wheelis.html. On Soviet programs in gross violation of treaty obligations, see William Broad, Judith Miller, and Stephen Engelberg, Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001).

 

37

“Going it Alone,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 58, no. 4 (July–August 2002): pp. 36–37, reviewing these and similar administration initiatives. George Perkovich, “Bush’s Nuclear Revolution: A Regime Change in Nonproliferation,” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 3 (March–April 2003): pp. 2ff.

 

38

See p. 121 of Hegemony or Survival.

 

39

Rachel Corrie was killed by Israeli forces in Gaza in March 2003 with a US-supplied bulldozer, one of Israel’s most destructive weapons; see p. 181 of Hegemony or Survival. Murdered might be the more appropriate term, to judge by eyewitness reports. The killing of an American citizen by US clients using US equipment was not considered worthy of inquiry, even more than the barest report.

 

40

Cited by Judy Toth, “Bertrand Russell’s Relevance Today,” Bertrand Russell Society Quarterly, February 2003. Online version of Toth’s 28 March 1999 speech at: http://www.ethicalstl.org/platform032899.shtml.

 

Copyright © 2003 Aviva Chomsky, Diane Chomsky, and Harry Chomsky